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Phylum Porifera. no symmetry, tissues or organs sessile (=attached) filter feeders – have incurrent pores to allow food to enter reproduce by budding hermaphroditic. Phylum Cnidaria. jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones tissues 2 layers – ectoderm and endoderm

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phylum porifera
Phylum Porifera
  • no symmetry, tissues or organs
  • sessile (=attached)
  • filter feeders – have incurrent pores to allow food to enter
  • reproduce by budding
  • hermaphroditic
phylum cnidaria
Phylum Cnidaria
  • jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones
  • tissues
  • 2 layers – ectoderm and endoderm
  • specialized stinging cells = nematocysts –barbs tipped w/ toxin
  • digestive sac with mouth (only one opening)
  • radial symmetry
who has the worst sting
Who has the Worst Sting?
  • Box Jelly or Sea Wasp: Causes respiratory failure. There are many (about 70) reported deaths in Australia per year. Wearing pantyhose has been shown to prevent the jelly from stinging
moon jelly life cycle
Moon Jelly Life Cycle

Life cycle video

terms used to describe cephalized with a head end organisms
TERMS used to describe cephalized (with a head end) organisms:
  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Dorsal
  • Ventral
phylum platyhelminthes
Phylum Platyhelminthes
  • primitive organs
  • acoelomates – tissue fills region between gut and body wall
  • bilateral symmetry
  • cephalized
  • 3 layers – endo- , ecto, and meso – derm
  • No circulatory system-
  • digestive cavity has one opening
phylum nematoda
Phylum Nematoda
  • pseudocoelomates – false coelum
  • bilateral symmetry
  • separate sexes
  • mouth and anus =simplest animal with complete digestive system
  • nerve cord and nerve rings
phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida
  • Name means ‘little rings’
  • =Segmented worms
  • true coelum – mesoderm + body cavity lined w/ peritoneum and housing organs
  • 3 tissue layers – well defined systems
  • Cephalization – having forward end that encounters food/stimuli first
phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca
  • 2nd largest –60,000 species
  • Most abundant marine species
  • Classes include chitons, gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods
  • soft body
mollusc body plan
Mollusc Body Plan
  • 3 parts:
      • Head/foot – with sensory and motor organs
      • Visceral Mass – organs for digestion, excretion, reproduction
      • Mantle – hangs over visceral mass and secretes shell
  • bilateral symmetry
  • Coelomate
  • Large group during Cambrian explosion



  • Nudibranch feeding off of a Man-o-War and using the nemotocysts
phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
  • largest phylum ~ 1,000,000 species
  • hardened jointed exoskeletons of chitin
  • specialized appendages
  • segmented – head, thorax and abdomen
  • organ systems
3 classes subphyla of arthropods over 90 of all animals
3 Classes/Subphyla of ArthropodsOver 90% of all Animals

3 classes:

  • Insects: - 3 prs of legs tracheal breathing tubes
  • Arachnids: - 4 prs of legs
  • Crustaceans – segmented bodies, gills, molting replaces exoskeleton: Includes lobsters, crayfish and shrimp
phylum echinodermata
Phylum Echinodermata
  • marine coelomates
  • radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry mixed
  • water vascular system = network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet.
  • Tube feet for locomotion, feeding and gas exchange
  • regeneration


i thought evolved organisms were bilaterally symmetrical
I thought evolved organisms were bilaterally symmetrical??
  • Larval forms of echinoderms are bilaterally symmetrical
  • Bipinnaria are planktonic
water vascular system
Water Vascular System
  • Hydraulic system that functions in locomotion, feeding, and respiration
  • Water enters madreporite into ring canal
  • Each ring canal leads into each ray
  • Tube feet (thousands) have a sac like structure (ampullae) that are squeezed and create a suction
phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata

* Bilateral Symmetry

* Most are vertebrates ( 47,000 species)

Compared to 2,100 invertebrate chordates

* Share embryonic similarities:

*Notochord – dorsal rod supports body becomes backbone in most.

*Nerve cord – runs parallel to notochord – becomes spinal cord and brain

*Slits in pharynx ( Pharyngeal slits)

*Embryos have tails that extends past anus

phylum chordata class agnatha
Phylum ChordataClass Agnatha
  • Agnatha – jawless fishes (Hagfish, lamprey)

Video clip

phylum chordata class chondrichthyes
Phylum ChordataClass Chondrichthyes
  • Cartilaginous fish
  • Includes sharks and skates
  • No Bone – have cartilage for skeleton
  • Chondro = cartilage
  • Ichthyes = fish

Octopus vs Shark

phylum chordata class osteichthyes
Phylum ChordataClass Osteichthyes
  • bony fish

-Osteo = bone

-ichthyes = fish

phylum chordata class amphibia
Phylum ChordataClass Amphibia
  • Made transition from water to land
  • Require water to lay eggs, and to keep skin moist for gas exchange
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders
phylum chordata class reptilia
Phylum ChordataClass Reptilia
  • Includes turtles, snakes, lizards, crocs, alligators
  • Have fully developed lungss and systems
  • Have AMNIOTE EGG – shelled so it can be laid on land!
phylum chordata class aves
Phylum ChordataClass Aves
  • Birds
  • hollow bones
  • Feathers for flight, insulation or both
  • Resemble reptiles in many ways
phylum chordata class mammalia
Phylum ChordataClass Mammalia
  • Hair
  • Mammary glands (milk-producing) feed young
  • divided into 3 groups Monotremes Marsupials Placentals
  • Live birth – worm-like
  • Develops in mother’s pouch
placental mammals
Placental Mammals
  • Placenta = spongy, blood-filled tissue of fetal and maternal tissues which delivers nutrients and oxygen to embryo and removes wastes