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Phylum Porifera

Phylum Porifera

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Phylum Porifera

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  1. Phylum Porifera 113-120(EDITION 14TH) 109-119 (EDITION 15TH)

  2. Goals for today • Learn to recognized the Phylum Porifera from other animals • Learn the main ‘diagnostic’ characteristics, structures, and their function • Learn about some sponges biology

  3. Phylum Porifera • Most are marine • Freshwater species are found in ponds and streams • Solitary or colonial • Adults are sessile and benthic

  4. Porifera = "pore bearer" These are the simplest metazoans (multi cellular organisms) • No organs, no mouth, no nervous, digestive or circulatory system, only rudimentary nervous integrations. • Little or no tissue organization • No germ layers (so neither diplo- or triploblastic) • Two thin layers of cells (Epidermis and Endodermis) • Some have radial symmetry some do not Parazoa Porifera Cnidaria and Ctenophora Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Protostomia Bilateria Radiata Parazoa Eumetazoa Ancestral colonial choanoflagellate

  5. Phylum Porifera Main characteristics of sponges are: • Internal skeletons of spiculesor organic fibers (spongin). • Pores and canal systems (asconoid, siconoid, and leuconoid) • Internal cavity= spongocoelthat opens to anosculum

  6. Phylum Porifera • Flagellated sponge feeding cells= choanocytes. • By cooperatively moving their flagella, choanocytes generate a flow of water through the sponges pores, into the spongocoel, and out through the osculum.

  7. Phylum PoriferaFeeding Behavior http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=RmPTM965-1c

  8. Porifera: Classification Classes: Calcarea: • Spicules of calcium carbonate • Needle-shaped or 3-4 rayed spicules • Canal systems asconoid, siconoid, or leuconoid • All marine Hexactinellida(Glass sponges): • 3D, six-rayed spicules • Siliceous spicules (SiO2)forming a network • Body often cylindrical or funnel-shaped. • Canal systems siconoid or leuconoid • All marine, and most deep water spp. Demospongiae: • Siliceous spicules (not six-rayed), spongin or both • Canal system leuconoid • One family freshwater, most marine • Most sponges belong to this class

  9. Porifera: Your Tasks Exercise 7: • Phylum: Porifera (sponges) • Class Calcarea • Genus: Sycon(=Scypha, Grantia)

  10. Porifera: Sycon 2. Take a slide from your box with (Sycon, Grantia, or Scypha) this is a cross section cut: identify the incurrent canal, spongocoel, and the radial canal Water enters the incurrent canals and passes through minute openings called? ____________ Check your book for answers!

  11. Porifera: Sycon What is the apopyle? Check your book!

  12. Porifera: Sycon 3. Take a slide from your box with (Sycon, Grantia, or Scypha) in a longitudinal cross section you would see the following specialized cells: what are their function?

  13. Porifera: Your Tasks Phylum: Porifera (sponges) • Class Calcarea • Genus: Leucosolenia Leucosolenia has an asconoide canal system

  14. Porifera: Leucosolenia • Try to find the osculum. This is a colonial species of tubular individuals in various stages of development osculum

  15. Porifera: Leucosolenia 2. Look into the microscope a slide of Leucosoleniabody and its spicules

  16. Porifera: Your Tasks • Phylum: Porifera • Class Hexactinellida (Glass sponges) • Genus: Euplectella

  17. Porifera: Your Tasks 1. Look at preserved specimens of Euplectella Some species of Euplectella have a commensal relationship with a shrimp species. A young male and female shrimp enter the central cavity and live there. As they grow they become too large to escape through the sieve-like covering of the osulum, and so spend their entire life inside the sponge.

  18. Porifera: Your Tasks • Phylum: Porifera (sponges) • Class Demospongiae • Gemmulas (asexual reproductive structures) -Gemmules are asexual reproductive structures of freshwater sponges and some marine sponges of the class Demospongiae. -Made up of amoebocytes surrounded by a layer of spicules and can survive conditions that would kill adult sponges. What is their function in reproduction?

  19. Important Links Porifera http://faculty.uml.edu/rhochberg/hochberglab/Courses/InvertZool/Quizes/Porifera%20Quiz%201.html http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Porifera.htm http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/Table-Of-Contents.htm