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Methods and Analysis BK8040 2007/2008. ir.Marc Koehler ir. Erno Langenberg ir. Ali Guney Dr. Karina Moraes Zarzar, PhD. Objectives. The objective of “Methods and Analysis” is that:

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methods and analysis bk8040 2007 2008

Methods and Analysis BK80402007/2008

ir.Marc Koehler

ir. Erno Langenberg

ir. Ali Guney

Dr. Karina Moraes Zarzar, PhD



The objective of “Methods and Analysis” is that:

Students are introduced to essential terminology, concepts and numerous aspects (such as context, program of requirements) of the architectural field.



The objective of “Methods and Analysis” is that:

2. Students develop programmatic and typological knowledge in architecture through the study of relevant cases.



The objective of “Methods and Analysis” is that:

3. Students learn how to use and adapt design precedents in the creation of innovative designs through the analysis of an architect’s oeuvre.

some questions
Some questions
  • What means Analysis?
  • What means Methods?
  • Why should you analyze something?
  • Does it help you during design?
  • Does it help you in developing your position as architect?
how can you analyze a building project
How can you analyze a building/project?

You can analyze it by:

  • Visiting the building
  • Studying visual material:
    • technical drawings
    • perspectives
    • Via photos, videos
  • Reading about it
2 approaches
2 Approaches
  • Approach 1: You don’t have written material about a particular building
    • You base your analysis on the physical aspects of the building
    • You study the drawings (maybe also visit the building)
    • You start your explorative (almost exhaustive) analysis according to the methods
    • You make the synthesis of all the parts
2 approaches8
2 Approaches
  • Approach 2: You know something from the architect’s position and want to know how some aspects are expressed in his designs
    • You study the drawings (maybe also visit the building)
    • You start a specific analysis on the physical aspects of the building to uncover the specific themes found in the architect position)
    • You present a partial synthesis in explaining the specific themes
2 approaches9
2 Approaches
  • Both ways:
    • You need METHODS to REPRESENT your findings
      • To compare with other buildings
      • To communicate with other people
    • You will understand how to “read” a project/building
  • By the end of the course, students should be able to:
    • Bring together an adequate documentation of projects
    • Understand basic architectural concepts
    • Understand basic principles of composition
    • Critically perform a descriptive analysis of a precedent through:
      • numerous methods: Ching, Clark and Pause, Steadman and in particular the F(m).O.P)
      • and diverse approaches: composition, function, context, construction - according to Leupen’s Ontwerp en Analyse
    • Make a comparison of projects
    • Analyze the oeuvre of architects in relation to their worldviews (themes), their use of precedents
    • Make a proper presentation of the analysis
    • Be able to transfer their knowledge from precedent analysis to design
course structure
Course Structure
  • The course is subdivided into 7 seminars of 4 hours each and a series of 7 lectures on methods.
  • Lectures =
    • general relevant terminology
    • methods
    • Study of the Oeuvre
  • Seminars =
    • discussion about selected architectural aspects
    • discussion about lectures
    • exercises
the assignment
The Assignment:
  • The students select (groups of 4 students):
    • The architect (from proposed list)
    • The themes (at least 2 themes)
    • Two representative projects of this architect
    • Apply Method(s) (to be learned during the lectures and seminars) to analyze, describe the findings, produce the parti,
    • Compare the two buildings
    • Analyze the oeuvre in relation to the selected themes: re-use, transformation and shifts
  • Result: Poster (format: A0) of the analysis
    • Introduction about the selected architect and his/her position(s)
    • Documentation of two projects of one architect: drawings, sketches, perspectives, pictures, texts
    • General description: primary and secondary elements, topological + functional representation and parti
    • Comparison of these projects referring to the selected themes.
    • Study of the oeuvre referring to the selected themes
    • Conclusion: reflection of the whole analysis
  • Attention:
    • results are always delivered in a CD as well as in a printing version.
    • Groups: max. 4 students.
list of architects
List of Architects:
  • James Stirling
  • Tadao Ando
  • Herman Hertzberger
  • Louis Kahn
  • Frank Llyod Wright
  • Rem Koolhaas
  • Jorn Utzon
  • Jo Coenen
  • Hendrik Petrus Berlage
  • Richard Meier
  • Aldo Rossi
  • Norman Foster
  • Renzo Piano
  • Toyo Ito
  • Peter Zumthor
  • Zaha Hadid
  • Alvaro Siza
seminar course method and analysis
Seminar Course: Method and Analysis

Seminar 1:


Intro. FOP




Seminar 2:



Clark & Pause


Prog. Of Req.

Seminar 3:

Clark & Pause



Design concept

Seminar 4:


Materials: Sensorial, texture, esthetic

System & Construction

Architectural Details

Seminar 4:


Seminar 5:

Aspect: Typology;

Design Precedents;


Seminar 6:




and identity

Seminar 7:

Presentation of the comparisson of two buildings + oeuvre

Lecture 1:


Lecture 2:


Lecture 3:


Lecture 4: Erno

Lecture 5: ALI

Lecture 6:


Lecture 7:


  • Terminology
  • Introduction to F.O.P.
  • Ching:
  • Sp. Relations
  • Sp. Organiz.
  • -Ching:
  • Movement
  • circulation
  • -Program of Requirement
  • -Clark and Pause:
  • Geometry
  • Light Fall
  • Structural System
  • -Clark and Pause:
  • Hierarchy
  • Massing
  • -Steadman:
  • Topological Relations

-Materials, Structures and Details


F(M) – O- P


  • Precedents and Innovations

Precedents and


course structure per seminar


Discussing Architectural Aspects: 30 minutes




Discussing lecture “n”

30 to 60 minutes

Work in Sub-groups

(exercises) 1:15 hr


Round table

40 minutes

New Assignments

5 minutes

Course structure per seminar

Not all seminars



  • Leupen, Bernard et al. 1999. Ontwerp en Analyse. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010.
  • Ching, F.D.K. (1979) Architecture: form, space and order
  • Clark, R.H. and Pause, M. (1985) Precedents in Architecture
  • Steadman, J P. 1989. Architectural Morphology-Topological (graph theoretical) representations of plans
  • Tzonis. A. 1992. “Huts, ships and bottleracks: Design by analogy for architects and/or machines”. In: Research in Design Thinking. Edited by: N. Cross, K. Dorst; and N. Roozenburg. Delft: Delft University Press: pp 139-164.
  • Tzonis, A. and L. Oorschot. 1987. Frames, Plans, Representation, Conceptdictaat inleiding programatische & functionele analyse. Delft: TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture, 236
  • Meiss, Pierre von. 1990. Elements of architecture; from form to place . New York: E & FN SPON, An Imprint of Routledge. (Oorspr. titel: De la forme au lieu, 1986)
  • Moraes Zarzar, K. and A. Guney (Editors). 2008. Understanding Meaningful Environments. Research in Design Series, Volume 4. Amsterdam: IOS Press under the imprint Delft University Press
  • Moraes Zarzar, K. 2003. “Breaking the Type”. Milan: GA2003
  • Moraes Zarzar, K. 2004. “Precedents and Identity”. Milan: GA2004
  • Christian Nobert-Schulz. 1976. “The Phenomenon of Place”. In: Kate Nesbitt (ed.). Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture, an anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 1996, pp. 412-428
  • DVD series: Architectures. Art Video. Vol. 1/2/3/4/5


  • Jong, T.M.d. and H. Engel. 2002. “Typological Research”. In: Ways to study and research urban, architectural and technical design. Edited by: T. M. d. Jong and D. J. M. v. d. Voordt. Delft: Delft University Press .
  • Jong (2002) Mathematical models 24.14 Graph theory
  • Moraes Zarzar, K. 2003. Use and Adaptation of Precedents in Architectural Design, toward an evolutionary design model. Delft: DUP
  • Leupen, Bernard. 2002. Concept and type
  • Leupen, Bernard et al. (1999) Design and Typology
  • Meiss, Pierre von. 1998. Elements of architecture; from form to place. London, Spon (First Edition: De la forme au lieu, 1986)
  • Rossi, A. 1966. The Architecture of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Tzonis, A. and L.. Lefaivre. 1986. Classical Architecture, The Poetics of Order. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press