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CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE FIRST WORLD WAR. GREEN DAY’S PERSPECTIVE. STANDARDS COVERED. CE 6.2.2 Explain the causes of WWI , the reasons for American neutrality , and America’s role in shaping the course of the war . WWI BEGINS: SECTION ONE. CAUSES OF WWI Nationalism *

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chapter eleven the first world war

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE FIRST WORLD WAR

GREEN DAY’S PERSPECTIVE

standards covered
STANDARDS COVERED
  • CE 6.2.2 Explain the causes of WWI, the reasons for American neutrality, and America’s role in shaping the course of the war.
wwi begins section one
WWI BEGINS: SECTION ONE

CAUSES OF WWI

  • Nationalism*
  • Imperialism—Euro powers competes with each other for colonies
  • Colonies provide raw materials and trade
  • Militarism* (Example: German army and British navy)
  • Allies*
  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers*
wwi begins
WWI BEGINS

AN ASSASINATION LEADS TO WAR

  • The “powder keg of Europe”
  • A spark to ignite the war—the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand*
  • Setting off the alliance system
wwi begins3
WWI BEGINS

THE FIGHTING STARTS

  • Schlieffen Plan –drive through Belgium to attack France first and Russia second
  • The Battle of Marne and the Battle of Somme used trench warfare*
  • Front line, support, and reserve trenches
  • No man’s land*
wwi begins4
WWI BEGINS

AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY

  • No reason—does not threaten our lives or property; nor did we want to lose American lives; take care of us
  • Immigrants favor it*
  • Many Americans favor it due to close ties with Britain*
  • America has close trading ties with the Allies
wwi begins5
WWI BEGINS

THE WAR HITS HOME

  • British blockade of German coast*
  • German responseusing U-boats
  • Lusitania*
  • Germany goes back and forth with its promises to stop U-boats
wwi begins6
WWI BEGINS

THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR

  • Zimmerman Note/Telegram*
  • April 6th, 1917 Congress and Woodrow Wilson declare war to make the world “safe for democracy”
standards covered1
STANDARDS COVERED
  • CE 6.2.2 Explain the causes of America’s role in shaping the course of WWI.
american power tips the balance section two
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE: SECTION TWO

AMERICA MOBOLIZES

  • America is not prepared upon entrance in war
  • Selective Service Act*
  • Trouble for African American soldiers
  • Eight month training period with 17 hour days, worked with fake weapons, target practice, bayonet drill, clean the kitchen and grounds
  • Women serve as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators
  • Economy converts*
american power tips the balance
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE

AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE

  • Convoy system*
  • 230 miles of mines created between Norway and Scotland in N. Sea
  • Heavy German losses
american power tips the balance1
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE

FIGHTING OVER THERE

  • European soldiers are already exhausted and demoralized
  • The American Expeditionary Force and John J. Pershing*
  • Use the machine gun, tanks (caterpillar treads and made of steel), and planes (fire at each other with pistols and machine guns)
  • Observation balloons*
american power tips the balance2
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE

THE WAR INTRODUCES NEW HAZARDS

  • Surrounded by lice, rats, polluted water
  • Poisonous gas and dead bodies
  • Lack of sleep, shell shock, and trench foot*
american power tips the balance3
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE

AMERICAN TROOPS GO TO THE OFFENSIVE

  • 1917 Russia backs out of the war; Germany focuses on Paris, France
  • We arrive in time to stop German advances; have quick victories in which we go on the offensive (pg. 386)
  • November 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrenders
  • Germany in political upheaval*
  • On the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany signs an armistice*
american power tips the balance4
AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE
  • Bloodiest war in history with 22 mill. dead
  • 20 mill. wounded
  • 10 mill. refugees
  • U.S. only lost 48,000; 62,000 die of diseases; 200,ooo wounded
standards covered2
STANDARDS COVERED
  • CE 6.2.3 Analyze the domestic impact of WWI on the growth of the government, the expansion of the economy, and the restrictions on civil rights.
the war at home section three
THE WAR AT HOME:SECTION THREE

CONGRESS GIVES POWER TO WILSON

  • Govt. gives power to Woodrow Wilson to control a war-time economy
  • War Industries Board*
  • Fuel Administration monitored coal supplies and rationed gasoline, along with heating oil
  • Citizen contributions when conserving fuel*
the war at home
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Herbert Hoover and the Food Administration*
  • “Victory gardens”

SELLING THE WAR

  • Govt. spent 35.5 billion on the war
  • Funded by taxes, borrowing money, and war bonds*
  • George Creel, Committee on Public Information, and propaganda*
  • Creel persuades artists and advertisers to set up posters, paintings, cartoons, and sculptures to promote the war
the war at home3
THE WAR AT HOME

ATTACKS ON CIVIL LIBERTIES INCREASE

  • Immigrants from Germany and Austria-Hungary are attacked (pgs. 391 and 392)
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts*
  • Clearly, a violation of First Amendment rights; 2,000 prosecuted and over half convicted
the war at home4
THE WAR AT HOME

THE WAR ENCOURAGES SOCIAL CHANGE

  • WWI contributed to the Great Migration*
  • Tried to escape racism, discrimination, and ruined cotton fields; racial tension and overcrowding caused
  • Women move into jobs held by men
the war at home5
THE WAR AT HOME
  • They were railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, and bricklayers
  • Worked as Red Cross volunteers, grew gardens, and encouraged the sale of bonds

JUST REMEMBER, AT ONE POINT, WE WERE ALL IN THIS TOGETHER…

standards covered3
STANDARDS COVERED
  • CE 6.2.4 Explain how Wilson’s 14 Points differed from proposals by others.
wilson fights for peace section four
WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE: SECTION FOUR

WILSON PRESENTS HIS PLAN

  • Paris: Wilson is greeted as a hero
  • Wilson’s 14 Points* pg. 399
  • League of Nations*
  • The “Big Four”—Wilson, Clemenceau, Orlando, Lloyd George*
wilson fights for peace
WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE

DEBATING THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

  • Treaty of Versailles*
  • Germany cannot maintain an army; has to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France
  • War reparations*
  • War-guilt clause*
  • Russia lost more territory than Germany did because of its withdrawal
wilson fights for peace1
WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE
  • Wilson returns home to promote the League of Nations and the treaty
  • Republican disapproval*
  • Goes on an 8,000 mile tour, delivers 34 speeches, and suffers a stroke
  • Up for vote twice and turned down each time
  • Sign a separate treaty with Germany
wilson fights for peace2
WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE

THE LEGACY OF THE WAR

  • Strengthened the military and the power of the govt.
  • Europe experiences destruction of land and massive loss of life
  • Fascism and communism rise in Europe
  • Leads to the vengeance of Adolf Hitler of Austria