Solid and Hazardous Waste CHAPTER 24. OBJ 24.1. Wasting Resources. United States 4.6% of the world's population 33% of the world's solid waste 75% of its hazardous waste. Solid Waste Source Reduction Reuse Recycling Composting Landfills Hazardous Waste Superfund Sites. OBJ 24.2.
OBJ 24.3Municipal Solid Waste
Source: EPA Office of Solid Waste, Municipal Solid Waste Fact Sheet www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted by Congress in 1976 and amended in 1984.
The act's primary goal is to protect human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal.
In addition, RCRA calls for conservation of energy and natural resources, reduction in waste generated, and environmentally sound waste management practices.
The bottom liner may be layers of clay or other synthetic material (clay, plastic, or composite), which is placed on compacted soil.
The bottom of the landfill is sloped and pipes along the bottom collect leachate. This leachate collections system must be very carefully planned and built by engineers. It is usually a system of pipes. (These pipes are among a gravel and sand layer.) The leachate is then pumped away and treated at a plant.
Trash is dumped onto the landfill and consistently layered with soil to promote safer and better decomposition.
A cover is placed over the landfill to keep water out (to prevent eventual leachate formation).
Landfills also must have a system to dispose of methane gas. The structure of this system must be carefully engineered.
The Love Canal neighborhood is in the city of Niagara Falls, New York.
In 1978 the neighborhood included about 800 homes, 240 low-income apartments, and the 99th Street Elementary School.
The neighborhood was located over and around a landfill that had been active in earlier decades.
The land was sold in 1920 and became a municipal and industrial dump site.
From the late 1950s into the 1970s, residents reported foul odors and complained that “substances” were seeping into their basements, yards, and the school playground.
Red indicates currently on final National Priority List, yellow is proposed, green is deleted (usually meaning having been cleaned up). – October 2008