TOPIC: Scientific MethodAim: Explain the steps of the Scientific Method.Do Now: Explain how you would find your lost science text bookHW: Textbook. Read pgs. 6-13, p. 13 #’s 1-5 (Copy questions and write answers underneath each question. )p. 6 copy and define vocabulary
What is the Scientific Method? Model, or guide used to solve problems and to get information
3 2 1 4 6 5
STEPS Problem: in the form of a QUESTION What you want to solve
Problem Under what color light will plants grow best?
2. Hypothesis: EDUCATED GUESS Suggested answer to the problem HOW? Research problem
Hypothesis I think the plant under green light will grow best because plants are green.
3. Experiment:TEST IF HYPOTHESIS IS RIGHT OR WRONG Gather materials Design procedures Record results
Experiment Grow the plants for 5 weeks. Each is placed under a certain color light. They will get the same amount of light, & will be watered every 2 days. Their height will be measured (in centimeters) once a week.
4. Observation:organize and analyze data How? Graphs, charts…
Observations Growth of plants 12 10 8 Height (cm) 6 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 PLANTS
5. Conclusion Is hypothesis right or wrong? Answers the question stated in the problem
Conclusion My hypothesis was wrong. Plants grow best under blue light, not green light. The plant under green light grew 11cm while the plant under green light grew only 2 cm.
THEORY • A hypothesis supported by MANY experiments • Thought to be true but can be changed
LAW • A statement that is believed to be true • Does not give an explanation
People Hate Elephants On Couches PROBLEM HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION CONCLUSION
Let’s summarize… • List the steps of the scientific method. • Explain the difference between the problem and the hypothesis. • What are you testing when performing an experiment? • Describe an example of an observation. • What are some ways to organize your data? • Explain the difference between a theory and law.
Review: 1. The first step in the scientific method is a. to state the problem b. experimentation c. to state the hypothesis d. observation 2. Information gained from experimentation and observation is known as a. theory b. data c. laws d. hypothesis
3. An educated guess to the problem of an experiment is known as a a. variable b. theory c. hypothesis d. law 4. When performing an experiment, you are testing the a. problem b. hypothesis c. data d. conclusion 5. Your senses can be used to make a(n) a. observation b. conclusion c. hypothesis d. problem
Topic: Scientific Method MI: Explain how a controlled experiment is performed. Do Now: (PASS UP HOMEWORK) Complete Review Questions on the notes sheet from yesterday. HW: Ditto – Lab Safety (Quiz is tomorrow!!!!)
The one factor that is different Factor that changes in each set up Variable
Controlled Experiment • 2 groups: • Experimental group = contains the VARIABLE 2.Control group = DOESNOT contain the variable • used to compare (normal setup)
Experimental Group Control Group
Everything between the 2 groups must be exactly the same except for the variable!!!
Topic: Scientific Method MI: Explain how a controlled experiment is performed. Do Now: Explain the difference between the experimental group and the control group. HW: Work on developing your science fair problem.
2 types of variables 1. Independent Variable: the 1 factor that’s different between exp. group and control group
Independent variable = ? SUNLIGHT
2. Dependent Variable = what is MEASURED data or results obtained HEIGHT
Height = 21 cm Height = 12 cm
What must be done to make results of an experiment more reliable or valid? • Repeat experiment • Use a larger sample size • Use only one variable
Experiment • What is the independent variable? • What is the dependent variable? • Explain the difference between the control group and experimental groups in this experiment.
Let’s summarize… • Explain the difference between the control and experimental groups. • Explain the difference between the independent and dependent variables. • How can the results of an experiment be more accurate?
Review: To investigate how temperature affects seed germination, a student placed 10 radish seeds of the same variety on moist paper in each of 3 petri dishes and placed the dishes in the following environments: Dish # 1: Refrigerator, 5ºC Dish # 2: Room Temperature, 20ºC Dish # 3: Incubator, 37ºC 1. Which factor is the variable in this investigation? a. temperature b. kind of seeds c. moisture d. number of seeds
To investigate how temperature affects seed germination, a student placed 10 radish seeds of the same variety on moist paper in each of 3 petri dishes and placed the dishes in the following environments: Dish # 1: Refrigerator, 5ºC Dish # 2: Room Temperature, 20ºC Dish # 3: Incubator, 37ºC 2. The control group is • Dish #1 b. Dish #2 c. Dish #3 3. The dependent variable is the a. temperature b. how many days till germination c. The # of seeds d. the amount of water
4. What is the factor in an experiment that remains constant? • control b. variable c. theory d. hypothesis 5. Which statement is true about the experimental group (s) in an experiment? • It does not contain the independent variable. • It contains 2 variables. • It contains the independent variable. • It is exactly the same as the control group.
6. The results of one experiment carried out by a research team would be considered valid if • the experiment had no control setup • all the members of the research team came to the same conclusion • the experiment had more than one variable • the experiment was repeated and the same results were obtained each time
Topic:Scientific Method Aim: How do we graph data? Do Now: Complete the review questions from yesterday's notes. HW: Graphing Ditto
Beta-carotene supplements have been thought to protect against cancer. A study was conducted with 39,000 women aged 45 and up. Group A received a beta-carotene supplement. Group B received a placebo. Their health was studied over their lifetime. Cancer rates for women taking the beta-carotene supplement did not really differ from the cancer rates of those women taking the placebo. Identify the independent variable, dependent variable, control group, and experimental group.
Students of different ages were given the same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They were timed to see how long it took to finish the puzzle.
What was the independent variable? • Ages of the students • Different ages were tested by the scientist
What was the dependent variable? • The time it to put the puzzle together • The time was measured by the scientist
An investigation was done with an electromagnetic system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used. The number of paper clips the electromagnet could pick up was measured.
Independent variable: • Sizes of nails • These were changed by the scientist