World History II SOL Review Day 2
Scientific Revolution • What effects did the Scientific revolution have in the study and practice of Science? • Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature • Formulation of scientific method • Expansion of scientific knowledge
Age of Absolutism • What are the Characteristic of Absolute monarchies? • Centralization of power • Concept of rule by divine right • What is divine right? • The belief that their power comes from God
Examples of Absolute Monarchies • France: Louis XIV • Built the Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power. • Known as the Sun King • Russia: Peter the Great of Russia • Westernization of Russia • Built St Petersburg ( warm water port)
English Civil War and Glorious Revolution • Discussion Question: • How did the English civil War and the Glorious Revolution promote the developments of the rights of the English man?
Enlightenment • Applied reason to the Human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world • Stimulated religious tolerance • Fueled democratic revolutions around the world • Influence of the Enlightenment • Fueled the revolution in the Americas and France • Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas • The Constitution and the Bill of rights also included ideas from the Enlightenment
French Revolution • What were the causes of the French Revolution? • Enlightenment Ideas • Influence of the American Revolution
French Revolution • Events • Storming of the Bastille • Reign of Terror
French Revolution • Outcomes of the French Revolution • End of absolute monarchy of Louis XVI • Rise Napoleon
Age of Reason • Painting depicted classical subjects, public events, natural people (portraits) • New forms of Literature evolved, such as the Novel
New Technologies • All-weather roads improved year-round transportation • New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution) • Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transportation
Question 1 • John Locke is closely associated with which belief? • Absolute monarchs are the best form of government • The church should always be obeyed regardless of its message • The government should be a contract made by the people • The people never have a right to revolt against the government
Question 2 • Johannes Kepler is known as a pioneer of the Scientific Revolution for his • Development of the heliocentric theory • Formation of the law of gravity • Use of the telescope to support the heliocentric theory • Discovery of planetary motion
Question 3 • Peter the Great was a monarch of • France • England • Prussia • Russia
Question 4 • The principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed is represented through • Communism • Democracy • Socialism • Oligarchy
Question 5 • The development of the rights of Englishman included • An increase in royal power • The end of political factions • The rise of power of Charles I • The establishment of common law
Question 6 • The Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract was: • Voltaire • John Locke • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Montesquieu
Question 7 • Which was NOT an application of Enlightenment thinking? • Reason was applied to the human world, not just the natural world • Religious tolerance was encouraged • The Scientific Revolution was begun • Democratic revolutions around the world were fueled
Question 8 • The first reigning monarch to face a public trial and execution was • James I • Charles II • Henry VIII • Charles I
Question 9 • The Separations of powers found in the United States Constitution comes from the writing of which Enlightenment thinker? • Hobbes • Locke • Montesquieu • Voltaire
Question 10 • The reign of which monarch gave England its first constitutional monarchy ? • Charles II • James II • Mary II • Elizabeth I
Latin American and Revolutions Colonial governments mirrored the home governments Catholicism had a strong influence on the developments of colonies A major element of the economies was mining of precious metals
Latin America Viceroys/ colonial officers Creoles ** Majority of Revolutions will be lead by this group** Mestizos
Latin American Revolutions • Haiti • Lead by former slave Toussaint L ‘Ouverture • Slave rebellion • Wins independence after beating three armies: Spain, France and Britain
Latin American Revolution • Mexico: • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement • Believed in enlightenment ideas • Creoles become armed and raise army to put down Hidalgo and rally around Jose Maria Morelos who leads independence movement
Latin American Revolutions • Following Countries gained independence: • Mexico • Haiti • Columbia • Venezuela • Brazil*** what special about brazil independence?
Latin American Revolutions • Simon Bolivar • Native Venezuelan Creole who led revolutionary efforts • Liberated northern areas of Latin America • Venezuela • Columbia • Ecuador
Monroe Doctrine • Define: US policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by President James Monroe in 1823 • Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent
Question 1 • Who led a successful revolution in Haiti to free Haitians from French rule? • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Simón Bolivar • Napoleon Bonaparte • Jose de San Martin
Question 2 • Who led a successful revolution in the northern area of South America, eventually having a country named after him? • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Simón Bolivar • Napoleon Bonaparte • Father Miguel Hidalgo
Question 3 • Viceroys were • religious officials. • priests. • explorers. • colonial officials.
Question 4 • Which nation claimed the region extending from Mexico through South America? • France • Spain • Portugal • The Netherlands
Question 5 • The European colonies in the Americas • established new and independent cultures and social patterns. • followed the cultural and social patterns of the indigenous peoples. • imitated the cultures and social patterns of their parent countries. • established a unified cultural and social pattern for all to follow.
Question 6 • The United States issued the Monroe Doctrine because • there was conflict over who would control Latin America. • American merchants had found rich markets in Africa. • the United States opposed the Spanish king. • the United States wanted colonies in South America.
Question 7 • The country located at number 1 on the map above is • Mexico. • Columbia. • Venezuela. • Brazil. 1
Question 8 • 8. Revolutions in Latin America were influenced by • the Renaissance. • the Crusades. • the Civil War in Spain. • the French Revolution.
Question 9 • Who started the Mexican independence movement? • Father Miguel Hidalgo • Simón Bolivar • Jose de San Martin • Toussaint L’Ouverture
Political and Philosophical Developments in Europe • Legacy of Napoleon • Creating an Empire • Unsuccessful attempt to unify • Growth of nationalism in occupied countries • Napoleonic code: • A uniform set of laws. Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights
Nationalism • The belief that people should be loyal to their nation- to the people with whom they share a culture and history –rather than to a king or queen
Unification of Italy and Germany • Italy- Count Cavour • Germany- Otto von Bismarck
Question 1 • The Congress of Vienna • supported Napoleon’s attempt to unify Europe. • restored European monarchies. • established democracies in Europe. • reaffirmed the existing European political boundaries.
Question 2 • The unification of southern Italy was accomplished by • Count Cavour. • Bismarck. • Giuseppe Garibaldi. • Napoleon.
Question 3 • The Franco-Prussian War led to • an independent France. • an alliance between France and Prussia. • the establishment of an independent Prussia. • the creation of a German state.
Question 4 • What was the significance of the Code of Napoleon? • It was the first European constitution. • It was adopted by all European countries within ten years. • It established a series of rights and laws that did not rely on earlier customs. • It specified a return to a limited monarchy in France.
Question 5 • . Attempting to restore Europe as it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests, the Congress of Vienna left a legacy of two new political philosophies, liberalism and • socialism. • conservatism. • imperialism. • anarchism.