Chapter 2 Biochemistry. The Chemistry of Life. pH. Measure of acidity (acid) or alkalinity (basic) Scale 0-14 Acid– b/w 1-6.9 Ex: stomach acid, urine, lemon juice Base– b/w 7.1-14 “alkaline” refers to a base Ex: intestinal fluid, blood Neutral - 7 Look at pH scale pg.44. Dissociation.
The Chemistry of Life
AMOUNTS OF EITHER ACIDS OR BASES
COMBINED TO THE SAME AMOUNT OF A BASE
SALT + WATER
Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Found on the periodic table
Solvent – present in the greatest amount, and dissolves other substances
Solute – dissolves in the solvent
DISSOLVED IN A SOLVENT
(The higher the solute the higher the concentration)
Ex: urine, salt water, orange juice
higher solvent concentration
SOLUTES CAN DISSOLVE
1. Vinegar has a pH of 3 which means its an ________ while detergent has a pH of 11 making it a strong __________.
2. Which is the stronger base…11 or 14? ____
3. Unbalanced pH levels can be harmful to cells, thus _________ in your blood help to maintain a balanced pH.
4. Other than balancing pH levels, what’s one more example of homeostasis?
4 Main classes of organic compounds:
ORGANIC = CONTAINS CARBON (C)
Fructose – also a simple sugar
1. Monosaccharides are made of only ___ sugar and are found in _________ and veggies…not _________ sugar.
2. Carbs consist of 3 elements: ___, ____, ____
3. The main function of carbs is to provide _________ for our cells, with ______________ providing us with the most energy.
4. Sucrose, or “_______ sugar”, is made of 2 monosaccharides (________ and fructose), thus sucrose and ________ are disaccharides.
A. Phospholipids – provide support for cell membranes
B. Cholesterol – also found in cell membranes
Long-term energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings
Polymers form when one monomer loses an H+ ion and another loses an OH- to form water. A covalent bond forms between the monomers.
A disaccharide is made of two simple sugars called monosaccharides.
Enzymes are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions. Based on your knowledge of enzymes, what might the result be if one particular enzyme malfunction or was not present.
The chemical reaction would proceed extremely slowly.
c. Water is a polar molecule
a. 8 electrons, 8 protons, and 9 neutrons
Which of the following will form a solution?
c. Salt and water
Which of the following applies to a water molecule?
d. Water molecules have a negatively charged end and positively charged end
7. Which of the following pairs is unrelated?
d. Starch—nucleic acid
8. An acid is any substance that forms
c. Hydrogen ions
Which of these is NOT made up of proteins?
An enzyme ____ chemical reactions
A calcium atoms has 20 protons and ___ electrons
The first energy level of an atoms holds ___ electrons; the second energy level holds 8 electrons.
15. In a water molecule, each ____ atom shares one electron with the single ___ atom.
A substrate fits into an area of an enzyme called the
Long chains of amino acids connected to each other by a ___ bond form a ____.
Diffusion is the process in which molecules move from ___ concentration to a ____ concentration.
Magnesium atom has 12 electrons. When it reacts, it usually loses two electrons. How does this loss make magnesium more stable?
The underlying energy level is a filled layer.
Water is a polar molecule; it will not attract the nonpolar grease.
Carbon is the building block element of the 4 basic substances (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) found in all known living organisms.
The substance was a compound because 2 new substances were formed by the chemical reaction.