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Chapter 2 Biochemistry. The Chemistry of Life. pH. Measure of acidity (acid) or alkalinity (basic) Scale 0-14 Acid– b/w 1-6.9 Ex: stomach acid, urine, lemon juice Base– b/w 7.1-14 “alkaline” refers to a base Ex: intestinal fluid, blood Neutral - 7 Look at pH scale pg.44. Dissociation.

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chapter 2 biochemistry

Chapter 2Biochemistry

The Chemistry of Life

slide2
pH
  • Measure of acidity (acid) or alkalinity (basic)
  • Scale
    • 0-14
  • Acid– b/w 1-6.9
    • Ex: stomach acid, urine, lemon juice
  • Base– b/w 7.1-14
    • “alkaline” refers to a base
    • Ex: intestinal fluid, blood
  • Neutral - 7
    • Look at pH scale pg.44
dissociation
Dissociation
  • The process by which compounds break apart when they are “dissolved” in water
slide4
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES THAT

NEUTRALIZE SMALL

AMOUNTS OF EITHER ACIDS OR BASES

Buffers

buffers cont
Buffers Cont-
  • Needed to maintain a pH of 7 (neutral)
  • What characteristic of life would maintaining this balance be? _________________
    • ***Basic or acidic solutions denature proteins (changes their shape) -- make it where they can’t work****
slide6
OCCURS WHEN AN ACID IS

COMBINED TO THE SAME AMOUNT OF A BASE

  • RESULTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF

SALT + WATER

Neutralization

********************************************

elements

Elements

Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

Found on the periodic table

elements1
Elements
  • 25 are essential to living organisms
    • C, H, O, N
    • 90% of human mass
    • Remember “CHNOPS”
the smallest particles of an element that has the characterisitics of that element

the smallest particles of an element that has the characterisitics of that element

atom

living organisms
Living organisms
  • Made of atoms– found inside cells
    • Protons
    • Electrons
    • Neutrons
  • Put 2 or more atoms together you get elements
    • 109 elements total
    • Ex: O2, O3
  • 2 or more elements together you get a compound
  • Ex: H2O, C6H12O6
  • ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
qsr 4
QSR #4
  • 1. Give the symbols for the following elements:
    • Carbon____
    • Hydrogen____
    • Sulfur____
    • Nitrogen____
    • Phosphorus____
  • 2. What is the chemical formula for water?____ Carbon dioxide?______ oxygen?_______ Carbon monoxide?______ glucose?_______
chemical equations
Chemical equations
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Subscripts
  • Ex: Photosynthesis and respiration equations
      • Write in your notes and memorize!!!
solution

solution

Solvent – present in the greatest amount, and dissolves other substances

Solute – dissolves in the solvent

Ex: Kool-aid?

Ex: atmosphere?

solutions cont
Solutions cont-
  • THE AMOUNT OF SOLUTE

DISSOLVED IN A SOLVENT

CONCENTRATION

(The higher the solute the higher the concentration)

Ex: urine, salt water, orange juice

slide17
The opposite of very concentrated –

higher solvent concentration

diluted

slide18
A SOLUTION IN WHICH NO MORE

SOLUTES CAN DISSOLVE

Saturated Solution

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

carbon compounds
Carbon Compounds
  • Organic Molecules– molecules that contain mostly Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H)
  • 3 Structures of Carbon:
    • Straight chains
    • Branched chains
    • Rings
straight chain
Straight Chain
  • H  H  H  H  H  H  H      | | | | | | | H -C- C- C-C- C- C- C - H | | | | | | | H H H H H H H
  • Carbon needs 4 bonds to be stable!!! 
carbon ring
Carbon Ring

C C

C C

C C

qsr 41
QSR #4
  • 1. Draw a simplified view of a carbon ring.
  • 2. All compounds are either organic or inorganic. Organic means they contain primarily ___ atoms.
  • 3. Carbon needs ___ electrons to be stable.
  • 4. Draw C4H10 as a straight chain and a branched chain and C4H8 as a ring.
biochemistry
Biochemistry
  • Review: Most common elements in living things are?
    • C, H, O, & N = 90% of your body mass
compounds
Compounds
  • Macromolecules
    • Large molecules
      • Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, & nucleic acids
  • Made of subunits called monomers
  • Ex: Starch is a polymer of what monomer?
qsr 10
QSR #10

1. Vinegar has a pH of 3 which means its an ________ while detergent has a pH of 11 making it a strong __________.

2. Which is the stronger base…11 or 14? ____

3. Unbalanced pH levels can be harmful to cells, thus _________ in your blood help to maintain a balanced pH.

4. Other than balancing pH levels, what’s one more example of homeostasis?

biochemistry1
Biochemistry
  • Review: Most common elements in living things are?
    • C, H, O, & N = 90% of your body mass
building blocks of cells
Building Blocks of Cells

4 Main classes of organic compounds:

ORGANIC = CONTAINS CARBON (C)

  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids (fats)
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
carbs
Carbs
  • Made of C,H,O
  • Include:
    • Fruits
    • Veggies
    • starches
carbohydrates also called polysaccharides
Carbohydrates (also called polysaccharides)

2 JOBS:

  • 1. provide the body with SHORT

TERM energy

    • Like sugars and starches
  • 2. Provide structural support in cell

walls

    • Ex: Cellulose – we can’t digest (don’t have enzymes for it)
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

3 types:

  • 1. Monosaccharides – simple sugars
    • Found in sugars that come from plants ex: fruit
    • 1 sugar
    • Ex: Glucose & fructose – natural sugars found in fruits
    • EASIEST TO BREAK DOWN FOR ENERGY – but it doesn’t last long at all
    • “sugar high”
slide32

2. Dissacharides – (2 monosaccharides)

    • 2 sugars – still easy to break down
    • Provides energy for a little longer
    • Ex: Sucrose/table sugar – candy, sweet tea
    • Ex: Lactose – milk sugar – milk, yogurt
slide33
3. Polysaccharides – “Complex carbs”
  • **these are your STARCHES
    • Many sugars (made of more than one sugar)
    • HARDEST TO BREAK DOWN – thus it provides energy the longest
      • Ex: Starch– long chain of sugars
        • food storage by plants (roots)
        • Ex: potatoes and rice
slide34

Glucose -- simple sugar

Fructose – also a simple sugar

qsr 11
QSR #11

1. Monosaccharides are made of only ___ sugar and are found in _________ and veggies…not _________ sugar.

2. Carbs consist of 3 elements: ___, ____, ____

3. The main function of carbs is to provide _________ for our cells, with ______________ providing us with the most energy.

4. Sucrose, or “_______ sugar”, is made of 2 monosaccharides (________ and fructose), thus sucrose and ________ are disaccharides.

lipids
Lipids
  • Do not dissolve in water
    • nonpolar
  • 2 types
    • Saturated – solid at room temp
      • Ex: meats and cheeses
    • Unsaturated – liquid at room temp
      • Ex: olive oil
  • Includes fats, phospholipids, waxes, and oils
calories
Calories
  • Calories
    • 1g of fat = 9 calories
    • 1g of carbs = 4 calories
types of lipids
Types of lipids

A. Phospholipids – provide support for cell membranes

B. Cholesterol – also found in cell membranes

lipids1
Lipids
  • Monomers are fatty acids:
    • Long chains of C-H bonds with a glycerol end
  • Fats/oils–
    • Plant fats: olive oil and peanut oil
    • Animal fats: butter and meat
  • Used for
    • Energy storage
    • Insulation
    • Protective covering
slide41

SATURATED

SATURATED

UNSATURATED

proteins
Proteins
  • Made of subunits called amino acids (which are used to build cells)
    • 20 different amino acids– your body can make 12, so where do the others come from?
  • Made of C,H,O,N and sometimes S
  • Ex: Hair and horns are made mostly of protein
  • What are some foods high in protein?
proteins1
Proteins
  • Amino acids are held together by Peptide Bonds
  • Thus AA’s often form long chains called Polypeptides
  • Proteins are often large molecules consisting of hundreds of AA’s
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Catalyst that Speed up the digestion of food and other chemical reactions
  • Act like a lock and key mechanism
  • Substrate: specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
    • Ex: Amylase is an enzyme (found in saliva) that recognizes the substrate Starch – thus initiating the break down of starch
enzymes1
Enzymes
  • Factors that change the shape of enzymes (i.e. proteins) – affecting their function to control chemical reactions in your body:
    • 1. High temperatures
    • 2. Unbalanced pH levels
qsr 8
QSR #8
  • 1. Proteins are made of subunits called ______ _________.
  • 2. They also act as _______ helping control the speed of digestion.
  • 3. Enzymes work specifically to fit certain ________(s) in a lock and key type mechanism.
  • 4. What are 2 things that can alter the shape and effectiveness of enzymes?
    • A.
    • B.
  • 5. Amylase is the _______ and starch is the ________.
  • 6. The substrate attaches to an enzyme at its _______ ________
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Stores cellular/hereditary information
  • Made of monomers called nucleotides
    • ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate – has the structure of a nucleotide, just with 3 phosphate groups
      • ATP is a compound that supplies energy to your cells
nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids
  • 2 kinds
    • DNA
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid
      • Double stranded
    • RNA
      • Ribonucleic acid
      • Single stranded
structure of nucleotides
Structure of nucleotides
  • Contain 3 parts:
    • 1. a phosphate group (unless its ATP, then it has 3 phosphate groups)
    • 2. a pentose sugar ( 5-C sugar)
    • 3. Nitrogen base
    • Several of these nucleotides linked together make DNA and RNA strands
outline for test
Outline for Test
  • 1. pH (acids, bases, neutral, buffers, etc.)
  • 2. Atoms, elements, and compounds
  • 3. Solutions
    • Solutes vs solvent
    • Concentrated vs diluted
  • 4. The 4 Organic compounds (macromolecules)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
section assessment pg 167
Section Assessment pg. 167
  • List 3 important functions of lipids in living organisms.

Long-term energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings

  • Describe the process by which polymers in living things are formed from smaller molecules.

Polymers form when one monomer loses an H+ ion and another loses an OH- to form water. A covalent bond forms between the monomers.

slide67
How does a monosaccharide differ from a disaccharide?

A disaccharide is made of two simple sugars called monosaccharides.

Enzymes are proteins that facilitate chemical reactions. Based on your knowledge of enzymes, what might the result be if one particular enzyme malfunction or was not present.

The chemical reaction would proceed extremely slowly.

slide68
5. Make a table comparing polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. List these 4 types of biological substances in the first column. In the next two columns, list the subunits that make each substance and functions of each in organisms. In the last column, provide some examples of each from the chapter.
6 1 atoms and their interactions
6.1 Atoms and Their Interactions
  • Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter.
  • Atoms consist of a nucleus contain protons and neutrons. The positively charged nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of rapidly moving, negatively charged electrons.
  • Atoms become stable by bonding to other atoms through covalent or ionic bonds.
  • Components of mixtures retain their properties---components of solutions do not.
6 1 vocabulary
Acid

Atom

Base

Compound

Covalent bond

Element

ion

Ionic bond

Isotope

Metabolism

Mixture

Molecule

Nucleus

pH

solution

6.1 Vocabulary
6 3 life substances
6.3 Life Substances
  • All organic compounds contain carbon atoms.
  • There are 4 principal types of organic compounds that make up living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
vocabulary
Amino acid

Carbohydrate

Enzyme

Isomer

Lipid

Nucleic acid

Nucleotide

Peptide bond

Polymer

protein

Vocabulary
understanding main ideas
Understanding Main Ideas
  • What are the basic building blocks of all matter?
    • Atoms
  • Which feature of water explains why water has high surface tension?

c. Water is a polar molecule

slide75
Which of the following describes an isotope of the commonly occurring oxygen atom which has 8 protons, and 8 neutrons?

a. 8 electrons, 8 protons, and 9 neutrons

Which of the following will form a solution?

c. Salt and water

Which of the following applies to a water molecule?

d. Water molecules have a negatively charged end and positively charged end

slide76
Which of the following carbohydrates is a polysaccharide?

d. Starch

7. Which of the following pairs is unrelated?

d. Starch—nucleic acid

8. An acid is any substance that forms

c. Hydrogen ions

Which of these is NOT made up of proteins?

d. cellulose

slide77
Which of the following is NOT a smaller subunit of a nucleotide?

d. Glycerol

An enzyme ____ chemical reactions

speeds

A calcium atoms has 20 protons and ___ electrons

20

slide78
A ____ bond involves sharing of electrons.

covalent

The first energy level of an atoms holds ___ electrons; the second energy level holds 8 electrons.

2

15. In a water molecule, each ____ atom shares one electron with the single ___ atom.

hydrogen; oxygen

A substrate fits into an area of an enzyme called the

active site

slide79
Hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium are examples of

Elements

Long chains of amino acids connected to each other by a ___ bond form a ____.

peptide; protein

Diffusion is the process in which molecules move from ___ concentration to a ____ concentration.

high; low

slide80
The positively charged ___ atoms of one water molecule attract the negatively charged ____ atom of another water molecule.

hydrogen; oxygen

Magnesium atom has 12 electrons. When it reacts, it usually loses two electrons. How does this loss make magnesium more stable?

The underlying energy level is a filled layer.

slide81
Explain why water and a sponge would not be effective in cleaning up a grease spill.

Water is a polar molecule; it will not attract the nonpolar grease.

slide82
Explain why carbon is the most critical element to living things.

Carbon is the building block element of the 4 basic substances (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) found in all known living organisms.

slide83
If heating a white substance produces a vapor and black material, how do you know the substance was not an element.

The substance was a compound because 2 new substances were formed by the chemical reaction.