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Chapter 3 Biochemistry. HBIO HHS-Tyska. Pseudorhiza haeckeli 99% water. Section 3-1 Water. THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER cells _____________ water –medium of life dominates climate covers ______________ of earth’s surface common as gas, liquid, & solid in nature life began in water.

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Chapter 3 biochemistry

Chapter 3Biochemistry

HBIO

HHS-Tyska

  • Pseudorhiza haeckeli

    • 99% water


Section 3 1 water
Section 3-1 Water

THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER

  • cells _____________ water –medium of life

  • dominates climate

  • covers ______________ of earth’s surface

  • common as gas, liquid, & solid in nature

  • life began in water


Polarity
Polarity

Structure of water (____________ bonds)

O has ________ protons, H has _____ proton

  • O has a greater ‘pull’ on the e- they share

  • Electrical charge is unevenly distributed


Polarity of water
Polarity of Water

  • Total charge is neutral

    • Oxygen region (______)

    • Hydrogen region (______)

  • Uneven pattern of charge known as a

    __________________


Nacl dissociates in water
NaCl dissociates in water

  • Polar nature makes water very effective in dissolving substances.

  • Dissolves other _________ substances like sugars & some proteins, also ionic compounds such as NaCl.

An ionic compound mixed with water tends to dissociate into ions


Hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen Bonding

  • Polar nature of water also causes water molecules to be attracted to each other.

    • This attraction is known as ________________

  • H-bonds are weak and easily broken but strong enough to exert a significant force causing water to adhere/cling to itself and other substances.


Chapter 3 biochemistry

  • COHESION

  • An attraction between molecules of the _____________ substance

  • sticking together of water molecules due to____ bonds

  • creates high ___________________________ in water

  • important in water rising through stems in xylem vessels

Water strider is able to walk on water due to water’s high surface tension.


Adhesion
Adhesion

  • An attractive force between ________________ substances.

  • Together adhesion & cohesion enable water molecules to move upward against gravity.

  • Property known as ___________________.


Temperature moderation
Temperature Moderation

  • For a temperature change, water must gain or lose a ___________________ of energy.

  • Heated: Hydrogen bonds are ___________ and thermal energy can then increase the motion of the molecules and thus raise the temperature of the water.

  • Water’s ability to absorb ________________ of energy helps to keep cells at even temperature despite changes in environment.


Hbio ch 2 biochemistry 3 2 carbon compounds
HBIO - Ch.2 Biochemistry 3-2 Carbon Compounds

________________ Compounds

  • Contain _________________________ atoms covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and to other elements. (usually hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen)

  • Form large organic molecules

    • Can also break apart into smaller molecules

    • Organic compounds are frequently found in living things, such as plants and animals.


Carbon bonding
Carbon Bonding

Carbon has ____________e- in outer shell

  • can form 4 covalent bonds with other elements

  • Readily bonds with other C atoms forming straight chains, branched chains or rings

  • This provides variety in organic compounds


Carbon bonding1
Carbon bonding

Symbolic shorthand - Each line represents a ___________________________- (sharing of a pair of electrons)

  • Can also share two or three pair of electrons

  • _________, __________ and ___________ bonds


Functional groups
Functional Groups

  • _____________________________: clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecules they compose

  • Structural building block that determines the characteristics of the compound

  • The ________________________(-OH) is a functional group that is important to living things.


Functional groups1
Functional Groups

  • _________________:

    • (-OH) attached to a carbon 

      makes it a polar molecule

      • Some similar properties of water

      • Ability to from hydrogen bonds

  • ___________________found in beverages;

  • ___________________ (wood alcohol) can cause blindness/death when consumed

  • Some alcohols such as ___________________ are needed by the human body to assemble some of the molecules necessary for life.


Macromolecules
MACROMOLECULES

  • _____________________: small simple molecules that bond to each other to form _________________________

  • ______________________: large polymers

  • ________________________________: reaction in which monomers link together and water is released


Condensation reaction
Condensation Reaction

  • (Example) 2 sugar molecules (glucose, fructose) combine to form the sugar sucrose.

  • Linked via a ________________ bridge

    • glucose molecule releases a ___________________________, OH-

    • Fructose molecule releases a __________________________, H+

    • H+ and OH- combine  produce a __________________ molecule


Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis

_____________________: reaction in which polymers are broken down with the addition of ___________________; reversal of a condensation reaction



Energy currency
Energy Currency

  • Life processes require a constant energy supply

  • __________________ (Adenosine triphosphate): compound that contains a large amount of energy in overall structure


Energy currency atp
Energy Currency - ATP

  • Contains 3 linked ___________________________ (-PO4) attached to one another by covalent bonds

  • Bond holding last phosphate group is easily broken  _________________ released  enables organism to carry out functions


Section 3 3 molecules of life
Section 3-3Molecules of Life

  • Four main organic compounds that are essential to life processes of all living things

    • __________________________

    • __________________________

    • __________________________

    • __________________________

  • All built from C, H, & O

  • The atoms occur in different ratios

  • They have different properties


Overview of organic compounds
OVERVIEW of ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

HYDROLYSIS


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

  • C:H:O in a ___:___:___ ratio

    • General formula: (CH20)n

    • (n = whole number 3 to 8)

      • Ex. A 6 carbon sugar = ___________________

  • Main source of energy

  • Also used for structural purposes

  • __________________________– single sugar molecules (glucose, fructose, galactose)

  • __________________________– many sugar molecules (Starch, glycogen, cellulose)


Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides

  • ____________: main source of energy

  • ____________: sweet; found in fruits

  • ____________: in milk

Glucose

Galactose


Monosaccharides1
Monosaccharides

  • Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

    • All have the same molecular formula

      __________________

  • Structural differences result in different properties among the three compounds


Disaccharides double sugars
DISACCHARIDES = “double sugars”

Sucrose

Glucose monomer

  • __________________________________: 2 monomers combine

    • Ex.) Sucrose (table sugar) = fructose + glucose

Maltose


Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides

_________________________________: synthesized by plants, animals, and humans to be stored for food, structural support, or metabolized for energy.

  • ________________________: storage form of glucose in animals;stored in liver & muscles to provide “quick energy”

  • __________________________: storage form of glucose in plants; starch can be highly branched or unbranched

  • __________________________: gives plant cells their strength and rigidity and makes up about 50% of wood.


Chapter 3 biochemistry

________________________:hundreds of glucose molecules strung together in a highly branched chain

____________________:thousands of glucose monomers linked together in a straight chain

_____________________: composed of glucose monomers


Proteins
Proteins

  • __________________: polymers composed of amino acids; made of ___,___,___,___

  • Examples: skin muscles of animals (horns, webs, feathers); plant/animal enzymes

  • ________________________: monomers that make up proteins; contain an _______ group (-NH2) and a _________________ group (-COOH)

    • >______ diff. amino acids found in nature

    • Different _____________-groups (random side-chains coming off of each amino acid)


Proteins1
Proteins

Glycine


Amino acids
AminoAcids

  • The main difference among amino acids is found in the _____________.

  • Gives the protein different shape  allow proteins to perform many different roles


Dipeptides polypeptides
Dipeptides & Polypeptides

  • In a condensation reaction, 2 or more aa’s form a covalent bond called a ___________________ bond.

  • ______________bond:

    2 amino acids

  • ___________________chain: long chain of amino acids.


Protein structure

Proteins are composed of one of more polypeptides.

Some proteins are very large molecules containing 100’s of amino acids

Long proteins are bent and folded as a result of interactions like Hydrogen bonding between amino acids.

Protein Structure



Lipids
Lipids

  • Large ___________molecules

  • ________________ in water

  • Higher ratio of C & H atoms to O than carbohydrates.

  • store energy efficiently; large number of ____________ bonds store more energy than the C-O-C bonds found in other organic compounds.


Complex lipids
Complex Lipids

Divided into categories according to structure:

  • ___________________________: 3 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol

  • ___________________________: 2 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol

  • ___________________________: structural lipid; long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain

    • Plants-form a protective coating; waterproof

    • Animals-form protective layers; earwax

      WHAT’S A FATTY ACID???


Fatty acids
Fatty acids

Purple- Polar Carboxyl head (–COOH)

  • Large unbranched carbon chains

  • Two ends have very different properties

    • ________________ end is polar

      • ______________ – “Water Loving”

    • _________________ end is non polar

      • ______________ – “Water Fearing”

Green-Nonpolar Hydrocarbon Tail


Fatty acids1
Fatty Acids

  • Saturated: palmitic acid

  • Unsaturated: linoleic acid


Saturated vs unsaturated fats
SATURATED VS UNSATURATED FATS

_______________________FATS: FA’S all single bonds; mostly animal fats; associated with unhealthy diet  risk of artherosclerosis, plaques in bv’s reduce blood flow

_______________________ FATS: FA’S have double bonds which causes links; oils at room temp (plants, fish)

________________________FATS: many double bonds (cooking oils)


The synthesis and structure of a
The synthesis and structure of a _________________________


Phospholipid bilayer
Phospholipid bilayer

  • Cell membrane

  • Double row of phospholipids

  • _________________ tails face each other

  • _________________ heads face the outside


Steroids
Steroids

  • Composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.

  • ______________________, such as testosterone are steroid compounds.

  • ______________________, is needed for nerve cells and other cells to function properly.


Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids

  • Large, complex organic molecules made from ___,___,___,___,___

  • ______________________ – monomers, consisting of 3 parts:

    • 5-carbon sugar

    • Phosphate group

    • Nitrogenous base

  • ____________(Ribonucleic acid) - stores and transfers info for the manufacturing of proteins

  • ____________ (Deoxyribonucleic acid) store and transmit genetic information


  • Nucleic acids1
    Nucleic Acids

    Nucleotide consists of three main components:

    • A phosphate group

    • a five carbon sugar

    • a ring shaped nitrogen base