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Air Law – Air Traffic Rules & Procedures. Mr. Darcel “I picked the wrong day to stop teaching Air Law”. MTPs. Clearances and Instructions Definitions and Flight Rules VFR IFR Special VFR Weather Minima Flight Plans & Itineraries Cruising Altitudes. Clearances & Instructions.

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Air Law – Air Traffic Rules & Procedures


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air law air traffic rules procedures

Air Law – Air Traffic Rules & Procedures

Mr. Darcel

“I picked the wrong day to stop teaching Air Law”

slide2
MTPs
  • Clearances and Instructions
  • Definitions and Flight Rules
    • VFR
    • IFR
    • Special VFR
    • Weather Minima
  • Flight Plans & Itineraries
  • Cruising Altitudes
clearances instructions
Clearances & Instructions
  • A controller may issue a clearance or instruction to a/c within the airspace that he controls.
    • Clearances may be read back when received, and may be issued to authorize specific operations within the controlled airspace.
      • IFR flights require a readback (CARS 602.31)
      • It may be requested for VFR traffic
    • Instructions must be complied with and acknowledged upon receipt.
flight rules
Flight Rules
  • VFR
    • “Visual Flight Rules”
      • Essentially, under this set of rules the pilot assumes responsibility for traffic and obstacle avoidance at all times, regardless of the conditions
  • IFR
    • “Instrument Flight Rules”
    • Here, the pilot can partially share responsibility for traffic and obstacle avoidance when in controlled airspace.
      • Eg, radar vectoring
flight rules1
Flight Rules
  • SVFR
    • “Special VFR”
    • Clearance issued by the relevant ATC unit for the a/c to continue to operate within the relevant airspace in conditions that do not meet the published weather minima for VFR flight.
weather minima
Weather Minima
  • In order to fly legally, there are a specific set of minimum conditions that must be met.
  • Composed of visibility and cloud separation criteria
    • Visibility used is that recorded on the ground.
  • The following minima apply to VFR flights only.
weather minima1
Weather Minima
  • Below 1000’ AGL
    • Helicopter:
      • 1 SM Visibility
      • Clear of Cloud
    • Fixed-Wing:
      • 2 SM Visibility
      • Clear of Cloud
  • NB: At night, minimum visibility is always 3 miles
weather minima2
Weather Minima
  • Above 1000’ AGL:
    • 1 SM Visibility
    • 2000’ horizontal distance from cloud, 500’ vertical
  • Controlled Airspace:
    • 3 SM Visibility
    • 1 mile horizontal separation, 500’ vertical
      • Within Control Zones, must also remain 500’ AGL
weather minima3
Weather Minima
  • SVFR Only requires clear of cloud/ 1SM vis (fixed wing)
    • May only be authorized in Control Zones (And at night, only for landing)
flight plans and itineraries
Flight Plans and Itineraries
  • Serve a dual purpose: a) ATC information (eg, Class C intent for VFR over Winnipeg) b) SAR (when overdue)
    • Required for flights occurring more than 25 nm from a/d of departure
  • Two Forms:
    • Flight Plan: The more rigorous of the two, contains detailed information pertaining to the flight, a/c, and intended route.
      • Overdue after 1 hour
    • Flight Itinerary: Filed with a responsible person.
      • Overdue after 24 hours
flight plans and itineraries1
Flight Plans and Itineraries
  • Flight Plan
    • Filed with ATCU, Flight Service Station (FSS), or Community Aerodrome Radio Station
    • Arrival report filed as soon as practicable, but no later than the SAR action time specified in the plan
    • NB: Is the only type of report valid for international flight
  • Flight Itinerary
    • May be filed with the same agencies as specified above, or a responsible person
    • Arrival report filing is same as above, although action time generally longer (~ 24 hours)
cruising altitudes
Cruising Altitudes
  • For VFR flight up to and below 18000’, fly odd/even thousands plus 500’
  • From 18000’ thru 29000’, conform to IFR traffic and fly whole thousands; directional criteria still apply
  • From 29000’ and up, the rules change somewhat; the altitudes now increase at 4000’-intervals only
    • So, Easterly Headings (0-179) fly FL 290, 330, 370, etc.
    • Westerly Headings (180-359) fly FL 310, 350, 390, etc.