Lesson Objectives • Describe the eight (8) steps of the Troop Leading Procedures • Explain Time Management and the one-third, two-third rule (Develop a timeline) • Define METT-TC and OAKOC as they relate to the Troop Leading Procedures • Use the Army Problem Solving Process in TLP • Identify the common challenges of the (8) Troop Leading Procedures
Troop Leading Procedures(TLPs) • The process a leader goes through to prepare a unit to accomplish a tactical mission • Begins when a leader is alerted to a (new) mission • Steps may not follow a rigid sequence and many steps can be accomplished concurrently • Time dictates the amount of detail in each step and analysis (METT-TC, OAKOC)
1. Receive the Mission 2. Issue a Warning Order 3. Make a Tentative Plan 4. Initiate Movement 5. Conduct Reconnaissance 6. Complete the Plan 7. Issue the Order 8. Supervise and Refine Step 8 occurs throughout the process Troop Leading Procedures8 Steps The order of these steps doesn’t change Steps 3-4 and 4-7are interchangeable:
OAKOC • Observation and • Fields of Fire • Avenues of • Approach • Key and Decisive • Terrain • Obstacles • Cover and • Concealment • TLP STEPS • Receive the Mission • Issue a Warning Order • Make a Tentative Plan • Initiate Movement • Conduct Reconnaissance • Complete the Plan • Issue the Order • Supervise and Refine • METT-TC • Mission • Enemy • Terrain • Troops • Time • Civilian Reconnaissance is conducted based on the tentative plan. Information discovered during recon is “plugged back in” to the estimate of the situation. It can cause a change of plan or even a change of mission. Tools of the Tactician
Step 1: Receive the Mission • Receive a mission alert in the form of a Combat Order • Warning Order (WARNO) • Operations Order (OPORD) • Fragmentary Order (FRAGO) • After receiving an OPORD, leaders give a confirmation brief to their higher commander to ensure they understand the higher commander’s intent and concept of operations. (FM 5-0 MAR 2010 (para C-11) • The leader immediately begins a mission analysis using the factors of METT-TC and the Military Decision Making Process this will provide information for the WARNO • Conduct an initial time management analysis using • “One-third: Two-thirds” Rule • Backward Planning Process: This assessment and time allocation forms the basis for the initial WARNOs
M E T T T C ISSION NEMY ERRAIN AND WEATHER ROOPS AND SUPPORT AVAILABLE IME AVAILABLE IVILIAN CONSIDERATIONS Step 1: Receive the Mission • Mission Analysis • Tasks - Specified, Implied, Essential • Constraints / Limitations • Write Restated Mission Guides the leader through the decision making process
Mission Analysis Step 1: Receive the Mission
Step 1: Receive the Mission- TIME ANALYSIS • 1/3 - 2/3 Rule -- Determine the useable time available to both you and your subordinates • From the time you receive the mission to the start of mission, use only 1/3 of available time to plan and issue your OPORD • Ensure that subordinates have time to do their own planning and preparation • Use Backward Planning Process – Look at the preferred end result ~ and work/plan backwards • Consider Critical Times such as: - LD - Defend NLT - Begin/Conduct Movement
Step 2: Issue a Warning Order • Designed to give advanced notice of operations and initial instructions in time for subordinate units to begin the parallel planning process • Issue immediately after mission analysis • Do not sacrifice time to gain more info • Should follow 5 paragraph field order format • At a minimum must give: • Mission or nature of the operation • Who is participating in the operation to include other units • Time of operation • Time and place for operations order • Specific tasks not addressed by the TACSOP
Step 2: Issue a Warning Order WARNO - A Basic OPORD Outline • Situation • Area of Interest • Area of Operations • Enemy Forces • Friendly Forces • Interagency, Intergovernmental and Nongovernmental Organizations • Attachments and Detachments • Assumptions • Mission • Execution • Commander’s Intent • Concept of the Operation • Scheme of Movement and Maneuver • Scheme of Intelligence • Scheme of Fires • Scheme Of Protection • Stability Operations • Assessment • Tasks to Subordinate Units • Coordinating Instructions • Sustainment • Logistics • Personnel • Health System Support • Command and Signal • Command • Control • Signal
Step 3: Make a Tentative Plan • Detailed mission analysis will focus planning • Detailed mission/situation analysis • Development of Options • Analysis of each option • Comparison of all option • Selection (Decision -- Tentative Plan) • Can develop multiple options • Develop into an estimate of the situation • Use OPORD or FRAGO format • Plan is tentative until reconnaissance is complete METT-TC OAKOC NOTE: The leader updates the estimate continuously and refines his plan accordingly.
M E T T T C ISSION NEMY ERRAIN AND WEATHER ROOPS AND SUPPORT AVAILABLE IME AVAILABLE IVILIAN CONSIDERATIONS Step 3: Make a Tentative Plan Dispositions (including organization, strength, location, and mobility). Doctrine (or known execution patterns). Personal habits and idiosyncrasies. Equipment, capabilities, and vulnerabilities. Probable COAs. • OAKOC • Observation and Fields of Fire • Avenues of Approach • Key and Decisive Terrain • Obstacles • Cover and Concealment • ASCOPE • Areas. • Structures. • Capabilities. • Organizations. • People. • Events. Guides the leader through the decision making process
Step 4: Initiate Movement • May occur at any point in the Troop Leading Process • The steps 3-4 and 4 & 7 are interchangeable do not have to be accomplished in order • Can be conducted by subordinate leaders • Includes movement to positions closer to LD, initial inspections, gather necessary equipment, reconnaissance, battle drill rehearsals or SOP items • If the reconnaissance reveals a change in the situation, the plan must be adjusted accordingly
Step 5: Conduct Reconnaissance • Plan and conduct a leader’s reconnaissance for every mission • May precede making a tentative plan if commanders lack enough information to begin planning. • Reconnaissance operations seek to confirm or deny information that supports the tentative plan. • Reconnaissance focuses first on information gaps identified during mission analysis. • Situation and time available dictate the type and detail of reconnaissance Map, terrain model, aerial photo, ground
Step 6: Complete the Plan • Develop OPORD based on tentative plan, reconnaissance and additional guidance. • Review plan to ensure that the Commander’s mission and intent is satisfied. • Consider whether reconnaissance and changes to current situation may change or alter tentative plan. • Use five paragraph format and common tactical language from FM 3-21.8 (Chapter 5) and FM 5-0 Appendix E.
Step 7: Issue the Order • Can be issued either orally or written • Issue while observing the combat area if possible • Supplements to OPORDs: • Terrain models • Sand Table • Map boards/Overlays • Sketches • Fire Support Matrix • All subordinates MUST understand the plan • Use back briefs
Step 8: Supervise and Refine • Starts at delegation of tasks before issue of WARNO • Always conduct back briefs • Supervise all aspects of operation • Rehearsals: The leader uses rehearsals to: • Practice essential tasks (improve performance) • Reveal weaknesses or problems in the plan • Coordinate the actions of subordinate elements • Improve soldier understanding of the concept of the operation (foster confidence in soldiers) • Inspections: • Pre Combat Checks (PCCs): Soldier items • Pre Combat Inspections (PCIs):Mission essential equipment
Closing • Summary • Review • Questions???