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The local erudites in 19th century and the origins of Christianity in Gaul. Introduction. Precisions on the thesis of apostolicity in Gaul: It dates from medieval period It is reviewed in 17th century: by the Bollandists by the Maurists

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introduction
Introduction

Precisions on the thesis of apostolicity in Gaul:

  • It dates from medieval period
  • It is reviewed in 17th century:

by the Bollandists

by the Maurists

by Sébastien Lenain de Tillemont , Jean de Launoy and others saints’hunters (« dénicheurs de saints »)

  • It surges in 19th century

The title could be : The beginnings of Chritianity in Gaul beetween « history from below » and «  history from above »

1 an anticritic reaction fruit of the local erudition
1. An anticritic reaction, fruit of the local erudition

1.1 First success of the « Legendary School »

- From the beginning, local erudites:

  • Étienne Faillon and the Provence evangelization: 1835 et 1848
  • François Chamard: “ Les origines de l’Église d’Angers”, 1846
  • Paul Piolin: L’Histoire de l’Église du Mans (1851-1863)
  • François Arbellot: Dissertation sur l’apostolat de saint Martial et sur l’antiquité des Églises de France, 1854

- Relay on national and international level:

  • Prosper Guéranger
  • Rohrbacher, 1850
  • Acta sanctorum:1853 and 1858
1 an anticritic reaction fruit of the local erudition1
1. An anticritic reaction, fruit of the local erudition

1.2 Recession in mid century

  • Protest of some bishops : Mgr de Mazenod, bishop of Marseille ; Mgr Mayet, bishop of Orléans.
  • Albert de Broglie: Histoire de l’Église et de l’Empire romain au IVe siècle, 1856-1859
  • Edmond Le Blant: Inscriptions chrétiennes de la Gaule antérieures au VIIIe siècle , en 1856
  • Prosper Guéranger
1 an anticritic reaction fruit of the local erudition2
1. An anticritic reaction, fruit of the local erudition

1.3 New start of the Legendary School

  • François Chamard: Les Églises du monde romain et notamment celles des Gaules pendant les trois premiers siècles, 1873 et 1877
  • Protests , particulary those of Father Alexandre de Meissas (1837-1906), during the archeological congress of Senlis (1877) and Le Mans (1878).
2 an approach from above the contribution of louis duchesne
2. An approach « from above » : the contribution of Louis Duchesne

2.1 Louis Duchesne(1843-1922)

  • Specialist of the history of christianism during the first six centuries
  • Contacts with the works of Bollandists
  • Contacts with the works of the great roman archeologist Giovanni Battista De Rossi
  • Higher education in Rome (Collegio romano, the future Università grégoriana)
  • Higher education in Paris (École pratique des hautes études)
  • École française de Rome (student from 1873 to 1877; headmaster from 1895 to his death in 1922)
  • Teacher at the Institut catholique in Paris and at École pratique des hautes études
  • Member of Académie des inscriptions et belles lettres and of Académie française
2 an approach from above the contribution of louis duchesne1
2. An approach « from above » : the contribution of Louis Duchesne

2.2 Duchesne and the history of christianism in Gaul

  • 1878: course of lectures at the theology school of Institut catholique in Paris
  • Bulletin critiquefrom 1880
  • Contribution of Duchesne’s method: systematic study of episcopal catalogues in Gaul, from the inventory of Léopold Delisle published in 1884
  • Fastes épiscopaux de l’ancienne Gaule, 1894
  • Cutting criticism on local level
3 c ontributions of the history from below
3. Contributions of the « history from below »

3.1.Underlying presuppositions to local resistance

  • To save the honour of the diocese
  • To maintain the link with Rome (expression of ultramontanism)
  • To maintain the doctrinal continuity in the Church through centuries
  • To denounce the damages of rationalism
3 contributions of the history from below
3. Contributions of the « history from below »

3.2 Meeting places and interactions between local erudites and specialists

  • Learned societies
  • Brochures and books ( example: Ateliers catholiques of Jacques-Paul Migne)
  • Articles in special reviews
    • « Semaines religieuses »
    • Local reviews
    • Revue des questions historiques
3 contributions of the history from below1
3. Contributions of the « history from below »

3.3 Example of Interactions

Camille de la Croix and the archeological excavations of the crypt of Mellebaude in Poitiers

conclusion
Conclusion

History from below is an essential phase for history from above itself