Revolutions in the First Half of the 19th Century Major Theme #1- Conservative v Liberal/Radical Pressure is Building
Major Theme #2 Different Roads to Liberal/Radical Reform • Some countries managed moderate reform peacefully: _______________ (???) • Some countries had violent clashes in 1830 and 1848: _______________ (???) • Other countries just had violent clashes in 1848: ________________ (???)
Major Theme #3 • Anti-Conservative forces had initial success, but this success was damaged by __________________________________ __________________________________
England ‘Relatively Peaceful Experimentation’ Liberal/Radical Forces • Whigs • Bourgeois, not mob • Reform Bill of 1832 • Redistricting, end of ‘rotten boroughs’, increasing franchise • Chartists/Anti-Corn Law League • Influenced by the Irish Potato Blight • Corn Laws repealed • England is free trade for good • Possible because the king sided with Whig Controlled House of Commons over Tory Controlled House of Lords Conservative Forces • Tories • Corn Laws • Why corn? • Battle of Petersloo • Six Acts
Greek Independence MovementRomantic Poet Lord Byron • THE isles of Greece! the isles of Greece!Where burning Sappho loved and sung,Where grew the arts of war and peace,---Where Delos rose and Phoebus sprung!Eternal summer gilds them yet,But all, except their sun, is set. Died Fighting Ottomans In Greece
Greek Independence Movement • Who, in Europe, supported it? • Liberals, Romantics, nationalists • Why? • Greece= great symbol for Romantics- cradle of Western Civilization • Who, in Europe, opposed it? • Conservative monarchs • Why? • Nationalist revolutions are bad • Why was their opposition more easily overcome in Greece? • Well, it is only ‘heathens’ being overthrown • Battle of Navarino • Who fought who? • British, French, Russians fought Turks • Outcome? • Ottoman navy crushed- independent Greece
Whew! Uh, oh! Greece
Louis XVIII Genuinely cared about people 1815 People’s Charter was a genuinely liberal Constitution Charles X Louis’ brother Reactionary Rejects Charter people revolt- Charles steps down France- 1830 • Louis Philippe • Supposedly will provide liberal reforms, but instead, sets up ‘bourgeois monarchy’
Just you wait for 1848! Hey, that rhymed! Me Too! Get Back In There! I’m Free!
Unhappiness of the 1840s Revolutions of 1848 were all partly spurred by a European wide famine, most notably occurring in Ireland Louis Philippe’s Gov’t would not consider liberal reform The Revolution When Parisian Working Class and students and bourgeois revolted, Louis Philippe tried to abdicate in favor of his son The rioters refuse and demand a republic Thus, middle class and the working class were unified in the beginning Narrow Streets ??? (see page 783 in McKay) France – 1848
France – 1848 (cont.) Moderates Full Franchise Labor laws End of death penalty Key figure??? ______ Radicals No private property National workshops/ full employment Key figure??? ______ Which side should I join? French Farmer Revolutionaries Soon Couldn’t Agree
France – 1848 (cont.) Moderates win Constituent Assembly Marginalize radicals Scrap national workshops Why did the moderates hate this so much? Leads to another urban revolution National guard had sympathies with the bourgeois middle class… puts down rebellion… June Days New constitution set up is surprisingly conservative- why? Louis Napoleon is elected Note the name! Name represents order! Strong executive is a basically ______________ ideologically Revolution failed! National French Elections (first French formal full-franchise phenomenon- forgive frivolity)
I’ll see you in hell! Me Too! Heh, heh, heh. Get Back In There! It’s ON! I’m Free!
Austria– 1848 • Primed by France’s Revolt and Poor Economic Conditions • Tipped off by Hungarian Revolt, Anti-Conservatives Have Near-Total Success • Metternich Fled the Country • Once Again, Anti-Conservative Forces Can’t Agree • Nationalism Adds A Wrinkle Not Present in France, Which Surprisingly Helps Conservative Monarchy • Hungarians want a nation, but they reject the national desires of their own minority groups • Ultimately, With Help, Conservative Forces Regained Complete Control • Russia steps in to Crush Uprisings
Yes! Dang it. Run Away! No, wait a minute. Slovakian- Arise! Austria I’m Free!
Prussia in 1848 • Anti-Conservative Uprising • Prussian King Agrees to Accept Liberal Reforms • Prussian King rejects the ‘crown from the gutter’ • Other Germans, notably Austria, refuse to give him the crown of Germany ‘from on high’ • Conservative forces marshal to crush the liberal uprising • Germany not unified
Major Themes #1 ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ #2 Conservative Backlash throughout Europe after the French Revolution ___________________ ______________________________________ _______________________________________ #3 Different Roads to Liberal/Radical Reform _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ #4 Anti-Conservative forces had initial success, but this success was damaged by __________________________________ __________________________________ Greece Who, in Europe, supported it?______________ ______________________________________ Why? __________________________________ _______________________________________ Who in Europe, opposed it? ________________ ________________________________________ Why? __________________________________ Battle of Navarino- who fought who? ________ _______________________________________ Outcome? ______________________________ ________________________________________ England Conservative Forces ________________________ __________________________________________ _______________________________________ ________________________________________ Liberal Forces ___________________________ _______________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Unique Aspects ___________________________ _______________________________________ France 1830 Louis XVIII __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Charles X __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Louis Philippe __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ France 1848 Unhappiness of the 1840s in France _________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ The Revolution __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Revolutionaries Can’t Agree Moderates __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Liberals __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Peasants __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ National Elections _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Failure of the Revolution ____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Hansen Name ____________AP Euro Period ______ Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Note-Taking Guide