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MODELING OF VOCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MoVE

MODELING OF VOCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MoVE

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MODELING OF VOCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MoVE

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  1. MODELING OF VOCATIONAL EXCELLENCE MoVE Petri Nokelainen University of Tampere Research Centre for Vocational Education Finland

  2. Research team Adjunct professor Petri Nokelainen Professor Pekka Ruohotie Adjunct professor Kari Korpelainen

  3. Acknowledgements The study was funded by Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and University of Tampere, Finland. Authors would like to thank all the Finnish 2005 Helsinki, 2007 Shizuoka and 2009 Calgary team members, and also Timo Lankinen, Veijo Hintsanen, Mika Tammilehto, Immo Pylvänen, Eija Alhojärvi, Seija Rasku, Heikki Saarinen, Atte Airaksinen, Juha Minkkinen, Matti Kauppinen, Tuomas Eerola, Hannu Immonen and Martti Majuri,among others, for their invaluable support.

  4. International research collaboration International research would not have been possible without strong support from World Skills International. Special thanks to David Hoey and Jack Dusseldorp! We also appreciate our current research partners who have seen the added value of MoVE: Helen Smith (RMIT) and Judy Turnbull (Skills Australia) Jenny Shackleton and Simon Bartley (UK Skills), Cathy Stasz (SKOPE, Oxford University)

  5. Outline • ”Modeling of Vocational Excellence” (MoVE, 2007 – 2008) • Background • Results (interview) • ”Actualizing Vocational Excellence” (AVE, 2009 – ) • Background • Results (survey)

  6. Introduction • A two-year (2007-2008) “Modeling of Vocational Excellence” (MoVE) project was funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and University of Tampere, Finland. • During the study, a sample (N = 67) representing Finnish World Skills Competition (WSC) competitors (2005 Helsinki and 2007 Shitsuoka), their trainers, working life representatives and parents was collected.

  7. Introduction • Semi-structured interview was carried out to answer the following research questions: • What characteristics specify WSC competitors? • How the WSC competitors’ characteristics differ during training period, competitions and working life? • What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ initial interest towards the work field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill and mastery of the skill? • What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer?

  8. Introduction • Survey* was carried out to answer the following research questions: (5) What are the WSC competitors’ most essential natural abilities? (6) What are the WSC competitors’ most essential self-regulatory abilities? (7) What is the influence of home and school atmosphere to the WSC competitors talent development? * These questions are discussed in the second part of the presentation with a combined sample of Shizuoka and Calgary team members (N = 64).

  9. Theoretical framework • Bloom: Talent development taxonomy (1985). • Ericsson: Development of expertise (1993, 2006). • Gagné: Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004). • Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993, 1999). • Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner: Cognitive and social skills on talent development (2004). • Pintrich: Intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations, control and efficacy beliefs (2000). • Midgley et al.: Patterns of adaptive learning (2000). • Zimmerman: Sociocognitive approach to self-regulation (1998, 2000). • Weiner: Attributions for success and failure (1986).

  10. Theoretical framework: Differentiated Model for Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) (Gagné, 2004)

  11. Theoretical framework: Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory (1983) (1) Linguistic intelligence (2) Logical-mathematical intelligence (3) Musical intelligence (4) Spatial intelligence (5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (6) Interpersonal intelligence (7) Intrapersonal intelligence --- (8) Spiritual intelligence (9) Environmental intelligence

  12. Theoretical framework: Adaptation of Zimmerman’s Self-regulation Model (Zimmerman, 2000; Nokelainen, 2008)

  13. Theoretical framework: Causal order of components in DMGT(Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011)

  14. Method: Participants INTERVIEW • Four Finnish WSC 2005 and four WSC 2007 competitors (n = 8) were interviewed • Six males (Mage = 21 years) and two females (Mage = 20 years). • Also their trainers, working life representatives and parents (n = 22) were interviewed. • WSC competitors in this study represent four skill categories, which are linked to the Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983): • IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical). • Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical). • Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial). • Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial).

  15. Method: Instrument INTERVIEW • Empirical data was collected in 2007 with a semi-structured interview. • The interview concentrated on two major aspects: • Influence of self-regulation and cognitive and social skills on talent development (Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner, 2004; Zimmerman, 1998). • Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in initial participation to the training, perseverance and mastery of the skill (Bloom, 1985).

  16. Method: Participants SURVEY • Finnish WSC 2007 team (n = 25) • 16 males and nine females (Mage = 22 years) and their parents (n = 12) responded to surveys. • WSC competitors represent 20 skill categories, which are linked to the MI theory, for example: • Landscaping (environmental, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial). • Floristry (environmental, spatial). • Polymechanics, IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical, spatial). • Nursing, Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic).

  17. Method: Instrument SURVEY • Numerical empirical data was collected in 2007 with the following self-rating instruments: • Multiple Intelligences Profiling Questionnaire (MIPQ III, Tirri, K., Komulainen, Nokelainen & Tirri, H., 2003; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2008). • Abilities for Professional Learning Questionnaire (APLQ, Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2002). • Self-attitudes and Attributes Scales (SaaS, Campbell, 1996; Campbell, Tirri, Ruohotie & Walberg, 2004). • Family and School Influences Questionnaire (FA, SA, Campbell, 1996).

  18. Results: Interview 1. What characteristics specify a successful WSC competitor?

  19. VOLITION Perseverance Time management MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Results: Interview INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance VOCATIONAL TALENT CHARACTERISTICS INTELLECTUAL SENSORIMOTOR SOCIOAFFECTIVE NATURALABILITIES

  20. Results: Interview • Self-reflection (stress tolerance) • Mental training • Volition (perseverance, time management skills) • Total mastery of work skills • Cognitive skills (development potential) • Shift from uncontrollable to controllable attributions • Extrinsic goal-orientation (competitiveness, ambition) • Promotion of advances of competitions for future career • Intrinsic goal-orientation (interest towards work) • Meaningful training tasks, interesting artefacts, home/teacher support • Social skills • Collaborative tasks during training

  21. Results: Interview

  22. VOLITION Perseverance Time management MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Results: Interview INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance VOCATIONAL TALENT CHARACTERISTICS INTELLECTUAL SENSORIMOTOR SOCIOAFFECTIVE NATURALABILITIES

  23. Results: Interview • Results are parallel to findings from US Olympic Champions research (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2001) and international study of Academic Olympians in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry (Campbell, Tirri, Ruohotie & Walberg, 2004; Heller & Lengfelder, 2000; Wu & Chen, 2001). • Important role of self-regulation is justified in theoretical sense, as it separates experts from workers (Day, Arthur & Gettman, 2001; Pillay, 1998; Ruohotie, 2004). • Small role of social skills was an expected finding as the four skill categories (IT/Software Applications, Web Design, Plumbing, Beauty Therapy) involved individual competition tasks.

  24. Results: Interview 2. How the WSC competitors’ characteristics differ during training period, competitions and working life?

  25. Results: Interview

  26. Results: Interview • Perseverance and self-reflection alongside with intellectual and sensorimotorical abilities were important in all three career stages. • The role of social skills was strongest in working life. • As the role of social skills is important for career development, this is one possible development target for vocational schools/institutions. • Results showed only minor differences between intrinsic and extrinsic goal-orientations. • However, motivation is a prerequisite for volition.

  27. Results: Interview

  28. Results: Interview

  29. Results: Interview 3. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ a) initial interest towards the work field, b) perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill and c) mastery of the skill?

  30. Results: Interview

  31. Results: Interview • Institutional and trainers’ support are important throughout the three skill acquisition stages. • Intrinsic goal-orientation is more important at the initial stage than extrinsic goal-orientation, but the roles change during training process (perseverance). • Importance of motivational aspects decrease towards the mastery level. • International research has not been successful showing causal relationship between motivational aspects and learning outcomes. • Importance of future work security and possibilities increase towards the mastery level. • Role of social motivation(importance of friends and WSC team members) stay quite small and stable throughout the process.

  32. Results: Interview

  33. Results: Interview

  34. Results: Interview 4. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer?

  35. Results: Interview • Challenging work tasks • Freedom and responsibility • Logical and fair leadership • Acknowledgement of life long learning • Competitive salary

  36. Outline • ”Modeling of Vocational Excellence” (MoVE, 2007 – 2008) • Background • Results (interview) • ”Actualizing Vocational Excellence” (AVE, 2009 – ) • Background • Results (survey)

  37. Current research • ”Actualizing Vocational Excellence” (AVE, 2009 – 2011) project is funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture and University of Tampere, Finland. • Major goals are • to extend the MoVE study to cover 10-12 WSC competition areas (both analyzed with qualitative and quantitative methods) • to study life management and work ethics together with competitor’s level of innovativeness and entrepreneurship • to investigate WSC competitors success in working life • control group is included for all the abovementioned areas

  38. Design

  39. Research questions • Interview 1. What characteristics specify WSC competitors? 2. What life management skills specify WSC competitors? 3. What is the level of moral thinking (work ethics) of WSC competitors? 4. What is the level of innovativeness and entrepreneurship of WSC competitors?

  40. Research questions • Interview 5. How the WSC competitors’ characteristics differ during training period, competitions and working life? 6. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ initial interest towards the work field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill and mastery of the skill? 7. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer? 8. How WSC competitors' know-how meets the expectations of working life and how their potential is actualized?

  41. Research questions • Survey 9. What are the WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? (MIPQ III) 10. What are the WSC competitors’ most essential self-regulatory abilities? (APLQ, PALS) 11. What are the WSC competitors’ most essential life management skills? (CMSRVE) 12. What are the WSC competitors’ most essential ethical sensitivity skills? (MOJVE) 13. What is the influence of domain and non-domain specific factors to the WSC competitors’ talent development?

  42. Current phase of the AVE project Interview • 29 interviews conducted, analysis in progress. • Three participants from each workplace: • Finnish WSC medalist from 2005 Helsinki or 2007 Calgary, who has more than two year work experience after the competition. • Control group member (similar age and work experience, no WSC training). • Employer.

  43. Current phase of the AVE project Survey • A combined sample of 2007 (Shizuoka, Japan) and 2009 (Calgary, Canada) teams contains 64 competitors. • The response rate was 77 per cent of the total target population (N = 83). • The sample consists of 44 male (68.8%) and 20 female (31.2%) competitors. • Male respondents’ age average was 20.9 years (SD = 1.676) and female respondents 20.8 years (SD = 1.735).

  44. Current phase of the AVE project Survey • The participants of the survey study represent 23 WSC categories covering most of the MI theory’s intelligence areas. • The concepts of expertise and excellence were defined in this study as follows: • All the Finnish WSC team members eligible to compete at international level were considered to be vocational experts and they were coded into group B (positions 8 – 11 in international competitions) or group C (positions 12 – ). • Only the most successful competitors were coded into group A (positions 1 – 7), representing vocational excellence in the study.

  45. Results: Survey • Success in middle school did not predict vocational skill competition success. • Negative correlation was found between middle school math, native language, first foreign language, religion, music and handicraft marks and skill competition success. • Only exception was a zero correlation with middle school sports mark. • The finding is plausible as those subject domains are general, not specific to vocational skills.

  46. Results: Survey • Success in vocational studies did predict vocational skill competition success. • Positive correlation (r = .41) was found between vocational school average mark and skill competition success. • Controlling for age or gender did not change the result. • If skills needed in competitions represent real working life skills, one may further conclude that success in vocational studies predicts initial level of vocational expertise. • Limitations: Small sample, difference between competition and working life skills.

  47. Results: Survey 5. What are the WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities*? • Multiple Intelligences theory: • (1) Linguistic, • (2) Logical-mathematical, • (3) Musical, • (4) Spatial, • (5) Bodily-kinesthetic, • (6) Interpersonal, • (7) Intrapersonal, • (8) Spiritual, • (9) Environmental. * Combined sample of Shizuoka and Calgary (N = 64)

  48. Results: Survey • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence - Dominant in most skill areas. • Mathematical-logical intelligence • Interpersonal intelligence • Spatial intelligence • Intrapersonal intelligence • Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group: • Linguistic intelligence (‘A’ higher) • Interpersonal intelligence (‘A’ higher)

  49. Results: Survey