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Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence

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  1. Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence Petri Nokelainen petri.nokelainen@uta.fi School of Education University of Tampere Finland

  2. Acknowledgements • Finnish research team: • Prof. Dr. Petri Nokelainen, Prof. Dr. Pekka Ruohotie, Dr. Kari Korpelainen, MA Laura Pylväs, MA Mika Puukko, MA Reija Palttala. • International research team: • University of Oxford (UK): Prof. Dr. Ken Mayhew, Dr. Cathy Stasz, Dr. Susan James.RMIT University (Australia): Prof. Dr. Helen Smith, MA Mohammad Rahimi.

  3. Acknowledgements • Finnish supporters: • Veijo Hintsanen, Eija Alhojärvi, Hannu Immonen, Immo Pylvänen, Heikki Saarinen, Atte Airaksinen, Juha Minkkinen, Matti Kauppinen, Pekka Matikainen, Tuomas Eerola, Martti Majuri and Finnish Helsinki, Sitzuoka, Calgary and London competitors. The research was funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. • International supporters: • TjerkDusseldorp, David Hoey, Simon Bartley

  4. Contents • Introduction • Theoreticalframework • Design • Results • MoVE (First phase) • AVE (Second phase) • AVE (Third phase) • Conclusions • Discussion • Currentresearch • PaVE (Fourth phase)

  5. Introduction • International vocational competitions in different skill areas (e.g., plumbing, hair dressing) are gaining increasing interest around the world. • What started in 1947 as a small regional competition in Spain has now become the WorldSkills Competition (WSC), a world-renowned event that draws competitors and visitors from all over the world.

  6. Introduction • The competition rules document define the resolutions and rules for the organisation and execution of the WorldSkills Competition incorporating all skill competitions. • Each country may enter one competitor or team per skill. • Competitors must not be older than 22 years (in some skill areas 25 years) in the year of the competition.

  7. Introduction • International panel of judges assign a score (0 - 600 points) for each competitor or team after four competition days. • Three best competitors for each skill area are awarded with gold, silver and bronze medals. • Other competitors who score 500 points or more are awarded with Medallion for Excellence.

  8. Introduction • Finnish WSC teams have been studied since 2006 in three research projects: • MoVE = ModellingVocational Excellence (2006-2008) • AVE= Actualizing Vocational Excellence (2009-2011) • PaVE= Pathways to Vocational Excellence (2012- ) • Projects were funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture.

  9. Introduction Major goal in thesemixed-methodstudies is to investigatethe role of WorldSkills competitors’ natural abilities, intrinsic characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to their talent development.

  10. Contents • Introduction • Theoreticalframework • Design • Results • MoVE (First phase) • AVE (Second phase) • AVE (Third phase) • Conclusions • Discussion • Currentresearch • PaVE (Fourth phase)

  11. TheoreticalFramework Bloom: Talent development taxonomy (1985). Ericsson: Development of expertise (1993, 2006). Gagné: Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004, 2010). Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993, 1999). Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner: Cognitive and social skills on talent development (2004). Pintrich:Intrinsic and extrinsicgoalorientations, control and efficacybeliefs (2000). Midgley et al.:Patterns of adaptivelearning (2000). Zimmerman:Sociocognitive approach to self-regulation (1998, 2000). Weiner:Attributions for success and failure (1986).

  12. Differentiated Model for Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) (Gagné, 2004)

  13. C.GIPE - Causal order of components in DMGT(Gagné, 2004, see also Nokelainen, in press; Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011)

  14. Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983, for operationalization, see Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011) (1) Linguistic intelligence (2) Logical-mathematical intelligence (3) Musical intelligence (4) Spatial intelligence (5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (6) Interpersonal intelligence (7) Intrapersonal intelligence (8) Spiritual intelligence (9) Environmental intelligence

  15. Adaptation of Zimmerman’s Self-regulation Model (Zimmerman, 2000; Nokelainen, 2008)

  16. ? ? A B C ?

  17. Contents • Introduction • Theoreticalframework • Design • Results • MoVE (First phase) • AVE (Second phase) • AVE (Third phase) • Conclusions • Discussion • Currentresearch • PaVE (Fourth phase)

  18. Design • Interview (n = 30) and survey (n= 110) data was collected from 2005 Helsinki, 2007 Shizuoka and 2009 Calgary competitors, their trainers, working life representatives and parents.

  19. Design

  20. Design Workinglife 1. PHASE WorldSkills competition Finnish WSC teamselection Finnish WSC teamtraining 2. PHASE 3. PHASE INTERVIEWS INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS A N A L Y S E S SURVEY . . . . . . . . . DATA

  21. Contents • Introduction • Theoreticalframework • Design • Results • MoVE (First phase) • AVE (Second phase) • AVE (Third phase) • Conclusions • Discussion • Currentresearch • PaVE (Fourth phase)

  22. First phase research questions (interviews) 1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors? 2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life? 3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill? 4. What characteristics are specific to the employers of WSC competitors?

  23. Design 1. PHASE Workinglife WorldSkills competition Finnish WSC teamselection Finnish WSC teamtraining 2. PHASE 3. PHASE INTERVIEWS INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS A N A L Y S E S SURVEY . . . . . . . . . DATA

  24. Method • Four Finnish WSC 2005 and four WSC 2007 competitors (n = 8) were interviewed. • Six males (Mage=21 years) and two females (Mage=20 years). • Also their trainers, working life representatives and parents (n = 22) were interviewed.

  25. Method • WSC competitors in this study represent four skill categories, which are linked to the Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983): • IT/Software Applications (logical-mathematical). • Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical). • Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial). • Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial).

  26. Home Society Relatives Friends Media VOLITION Perseverance Time management SELF-REFLECTION Effort Ability MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Intrinsic Extrinsic Effort Ability MOTIVATION SELF-REFLECTION Perseverance Time management VOLITION Artefacts Workplace Other persons Mental trainers Teachers Friends Skill trainers Interview measurement model NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS RQ 3 WORK LIFEEXPECTATIONS RQ 1,2,3 NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Challenge Intellectual Responsibility RQ 4 RQ 1,2,3 Socioaffective Leadership Sensori-motorical Life-long learning Salary RQ 1,2,3 RQ 3 DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS

  27. VOLITION Perseverance Time management MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Results: Interview 1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors? INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance VOCATIONAL TALENT CHARACTERISTICS INTELLECTUAL SENSORIMOTOR SOCIOAFFECTIVE NATURALABILITIES

  28. VOLITION Perseverance Time management MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Results: Interview INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS Self-reflection (stress tolerance) Mental training Volition (perseverance, time management) Total mastery of work skills Cognitive skills (development potential) Shift from uncontrollable to controllable attributions Extrinsic goal-orientation (competitiveness, ambition) Promotion of advances of competitions for future career Intrinsic goal-orientation (interest towards work) Meaningful training tasks, interesting artifacts, home/teacher support Social skills Collaborative tasks during training SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance VOCATIONAL TALENT CHARACTERISTICS INTELLECTUAL SENSORIMOTOR SOCIOAFFECTIVE NATURALABILITIES

  29. VOLITION VOLITION VOLITION Perseverance Perseverance Perseverance Time management Time management Time management MOTIVATION MOTIVATION MOTIVATION Intrinsic Intrinsic Intrinsic Extrinsic Extrinsic Extrinsic Results: Interview 2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life? INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS SELF-REFLECTION SELF-REFLECTION SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance Stress tolerance Stress tolerance VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Training/studies VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Competitions VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Working life SENSORIMOTOR SENSORIMOTOR INTELLECTUAL SENSORIMOTOR INTELLECTUAL INTELLECTUAL SOCIOAFFECTIVE SOCIOAFFECTIVE SOCIOAFFECTIVE NATURALABILITIES NATURALABILITIES NATURALABILITIES

  30. Results: Interview 1. Perseverance and self-reflection alongside with intellectual andsensorimotorical abilities were important in all three career stages. • The role of social skills was strongest in working life. • Results showed only minor differences between intrinsic and extrinsic goal-orientations.

  31. Results: Interview 3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill?

  32. Results: Interview 1. Institutional and trainers’ support are important throughout the three skill acquisition stages. • Intrinsic goal-orientation is more important at the initial stage than extrinsic goal-orientation, but the roles change during training process (perseverance).

  33. Results: Interview • Importance of future work security and possibilities increase towards the mastery level. • Role of social motivation(importance of friends and WSC teammembers) stay quite small and stable throughout the process.

  34. Results: Interview 4. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’ employer? • Challenging work tasks Freedom and responsibility Logical and fair leadership Acknowledgement of life long learning Competitive salary

  35. Home Society Relatives Friends Media VOLITION Perseverance Time management SELF-REFLECTION Effort Ability MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic Intrinsic Extrinsic Effort Ability MOTIVATION SELF-REFLECTION Perseverance Time management VOLITION Artefacts Workplace Other persons Mental trainers Teachers Friends Skill trainers Interview measurement model NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS RQ 3 WORK LIFEEXPECTATIONS RQ 1,2,3 NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Challenge Intellectual Responsibility RQ 4 RQ 1,2,3 Socioaffective Leadership Sensori-motorical Life-long learning Salary RQ 1,2,3 RQ 3 DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS

  36. Interview outcome model NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS Home Society Relatives Friends Media VOLITION Perseverance Time management MOTIVATION SELF-REFLECTION Intrinsic Extrinsic Effort Ability WORK LIFEEXPECTATIONS NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Challenge Intellectual Responsibility Socioaffective Leadership Sensori-motorical Life-long learning Salary Effort Ability Intrinsic Extrinsic SELF-REFLECTION MOTIVATION Perseverance Time management VOLITION Artefacts Workplace Other persons Mental trainers Teachers Friends Skill trainers DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS

  37. Contents • Introduction • Theoreticalframework • Design • Results • MoVE (First phase) • AVE (Second phase) • AVE (Third phase) • Conclusions • Discussion • Currentresearch • PaVE (Fourth phase)

  38. Second phase research questions (survey) 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities? 7. What is the influence of domain-specific and non-domain-specific factors on the talent development of WSC competitors?

  39. Design 2. PHASE Workinglife 1. PHASE WorldSkills competition Finnish WSC teamselection Finnish WSC teamtraining 3. PHASE INTERVIEWS INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS A N A L Y S E S SURVEY A vs. C . . . . . . . . . DATA

  40. Method A combined sample of 2007 (Shizuoka, Japan), 2009 (Calgary, Canada) and 2011 (London, UK) teams contain 110 competitors. The response rate was 75 per cent of the total target population (N = 147). The sample consists of 76 male (69%) and 34 female (31%) competitors. Male respondents’ age average was 20.9 years (SD = 1.676) and female respondents 20.8 years (SD = 1.735).

  41. Method • The participants of the survey study represent 23 WSC categories covering most of the MI theory’s intelligence areas. • The concepts of expertise and excellence were operationalized as follows: • World Skills competitors were considered to be vocational expertsand they were coded into group B (positions 8 – 11 in international competitions) or group C (positions 12 – ). • Only the most successful competitors were coded into group A (positions 1 – 7), representing vocational excellence in the study.

  42. Surveymeasurementmodel

  43. Results: Survey • Success in middle school did not predict vocational skill competition success. • Success in vocational studies did predict vocational skill competition success. + Middleschool GPA WSC success Vocational studies GPA

  44. Results: Survey 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? • Multiple Intelligences theory’srelation to skillareas: • (1) Linguistic (e.g., Caring, Hair Dressing) • (2) Logical-mathematical (e.g., IT/Programming, Web Design) • (3) Musical • (4) Spatial (e.g., Web Design, Beauty Therapy) • (5) Bodily-kinesthetic (e.g., Plumbing and Heating, Caring) • (6) Interpersonal (e.g., Beauty Therapy, Catering) • (7) Intrapersonal • (8) Spiritual • (9) Environmental