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Surface Investigations of Groundwater. John Walton Fall, 2010. Remote sensing, example of phreatophytes. Salt Cedar – Rio Grande. Salt Cedar. Grows over shallow water table areas High amount of evapotranspiration Water balance component. Q out of reach =

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salt cedar
Salt Cedar
  • Grows over shallow water table areas
  • High amount of evapotranspiration
  • Water balance component
  • Qout of reach =
  • Qinto reach + Groundwater inputs + Surface runoff
  • -evaporation – transpiration - human use
  • Solve water balance for groundwater input
groundwater input to rio grande fort quitman to amistad reservoir
Groundwater Input to Rio Grande – Fort Quitman to Amistad Reservoir
  • Assume steady state system where groundwater recharge equals discharge
  • Take measured surface water flows and diversions
  • Estimate ET from Salt Cedar/Mesquite/cane bosque area
  • Divide groundwater input by drainage basin area to obtain large scale groundwater recharge rates
  • Answer: ~ 1 cm/year
Thermal Infrared Mapping of Coastal-Aquifer Seeps and Associations between Seeps and Coastal Habitats
  •  The potential difference between electrodes placed in the ground is measured. When an electric current is passed between two electrodes placed outside the measurement electrodes a potential difference is created.
  • Deeper penetration of the electrical field occurs as the electrodes are spaced further apart. 
  • Interpretation of this data can be complex in some cases
Seismic location of water table, waves travel more rapidly in water saturated material; waves travel deeper at wider spacing