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  1. Plant Nutrition Biology Chapter 17 (Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Grades 9-12, Biology/Life Sciences: 1a-b, 1d-j)

  2. One of the largest differences between plants and animals is that plants . . . MAKE THEIR OWN FOOD! 17-1

  3. Early 1600s. • Flemish physician Jan van Helmont. • Concluded that new plant material came directly from water. 17-1

  4. 1770s. • Joseph Priestley found that plants could grow in “damaged” air. • By early 1800s scientists knew plants need CO2, water and light. 17-1

  5. Photosynthesis • Process of capturing and transforming the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. • Requires light energy. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. 17-1

  6. Light • Travels as waves, but acts as particles. Particles called photons. • Photons can excite electrons of an atom. When e- return to ground state, heat and light emitted. • This is what happens to the pigment chlorophyll in plants. 17-1

  7. In photosynthesis, this energy is captured to make sugars (reduced carbon). 17-1

  8. Sugars Sunlight + + Water carbohydrates + + CO2 O2 17-2

  9. Sunlight (430, 670 nm) Carbon dioxide Water Sugars Carbohydrates Oxygen Inputs and outputs from Photosynthesis: InputsOutputs 17-2

  10. The big picture 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + energy from sunlight 17-2

  11. Photosynthesis • There are 2 parts: Light reactions and Dark Reactions Light-independent reactions 17-2

  12. 17-2

  13. Light-dependent reactions 17-2

  14. 4.2

  15. ATP mill • Driven by chemiosmosis as seen in Cellular respiration 17-2

  16. Energy from sunlight Used with permission from: http://student.ccbc.cc.md.us/biotutorials/photosyn/atpasep.html 17-2

  17. Look Familiar? Used with permission from: http://student.ccbc.cc.md.us/biotutorials/photosyn/atpasep.html 17-2

  18. 17-2

  19. 17-2

  20. 17-2 Adapted from: http://138.192.68.68/bio/Courses/biochem2/Photosynthesis/Photosystem1.html

  21. Light-independent reactions (dark reactions) ATP and NADPH from light reactions are used to “fix” or reduce carbon (CO2) into sugars. Calvin cycle 17-2

  22. Most abundant protein on earth! 17-2

  23. 17-3: Special cases • C4 Photosynthesis • CO2 incorporated into 4-carbon compound* prior to the Calvin cycle. • Examples: sugar cane, corn • *PEP Carboxylase vs. RUBISCO • CAM Photosynthesis • CO2 incorporated into 4-carbon compound at night when water loss is minimized. 17-3

  24. Q: How do these alternate PS pathways allow these types of plants to save water? 17-3

  25. It is estimated that photosynthesis makes about 160 billion metric tons of carbohydrate per year (a metric ton is 1,000 kg, about 1.1 tons). That’s organic matter equivalent to a stack of about 60 trillion copies of this textbook--17 stacks of books reaching from Earth to the sun! No other chemical process on the planet can match the output of photosynthesis. And no process is more important than photosynthesis to the welfare of life on Earth.

  26. Respiration vs. Photosynthesis