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Plant Nutrition

Plant Nutrition

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Plant Nutrition

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Plant Nutrition

  2. Uptake of Nutrients

  3. Macronutrients • Carbon - organic compounds • Oxygen - organic compounds • Hydrogen - organic compounds • Nitrogen - nucleic acids, proteins • Sulfur - proteins • Phosphorus- nucleic acids, lipids • Potassium - Protein Synthesis water balance • Calcium - cell walls, membranes, permeability • Magnesium - chlorophyll, enzymes

  4. Micronutrients • Chlorine - water balance, photosynthesis • Iron - cytochromes • Boron - chlorophyll synthesis • Manganese - amino acids photosynthesis • Zinc - Chlorophyll synthesis • Copper - enzymes for redox rxns • Molybdenum - nitrogen fixation • Nickel - Cofactor in nitrogen metabolism

  5. Soil • Develops from weathered rocks • Anchors plants • Provides water • Provides dissolved minerals

  6. Soil Texture • Pertains to sizes of soil particles • includes the following: • sands (0.02 - 2 mm) • silt (0.002 - 0.02 mm) • clay (less than 0.002 mm)

  7. Soil Composition • Made up of sand, silt, clay, rocks, humus, microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protists, insects, worms, roots) • Soil contains a mixture of different sized particles • loam - (40%, 40%, 20%) - fertile

  8. The availability of soil water and minerals

  9. The availability of soil water and minerals • Plant takes up water not tied to hydrophilic soil particles • Positively charged ions attach to soil and negatively charged ions are lost • Hydrogen ions help displace minerals attached to soil • Roots add hydrogen ions to the soil through the release of carbon dioxide (reacts with water to form carbonic acid)

  10. The availability of soil water and minerals

  11. Soil Conservation • Fertilizers • (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) • Irrigation • Erosion

  12. Nitrogen Fixation

  13. Nitrogen Fixation • Plants absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrate • Nitrogen-fixing and ammonifying bacteria produce ammonium • Ammonium is shifted to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria • Plants shift nitrate back to ammonium for use

  14. Nutritional Adaptations • Root nodules (legumes)

  15. Root Nodule • Roots emit chemical that attract bacteria that stimulates root hair growth • Bacteria penetrates the root cortex • Growth continues and includes pericycle which forms a nodule • Growth continues to include vascular tissue

  16. Nutritional Adaptations • Mycorrhizae (mutulalistic) • ectomycorrhizae (surface sheath) • endomycorrhizae (no sheath)

  17. Nutritional Adaptations • Parasitic plants • haustoria • mistletoe • dodder • Epiphytes • bromelids / orchids • Carnivorous plants • obtain nitrogen minerals from animals