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Reformation: The Progressive Era
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  1. Amanda Ignacz & Anelisa Fergus Reformation: The Progressive Era Reforming the Political Process

  2. Reforming the Political Process • Beginning of progressive era- 1890’s • ‘boss system’=essence of evil to elites & middle classes • NYC- reform ‘spasms’ helped mobilize masses against employers • 1890-1897 Mayor Hazen Pingree: shrewd politician • lower transit fares, equal tax structure, honesty to city hall, public baths (improved quality of life) • Used a quarantine to force business owners to back his reforms

  3. Reforming the Political Process • 1907- Abe Reuf (corrupt business owner) in court-Hiram Johnson takes over after original prosecutor was embarassed • Johnson called ”A volcano in perpetual eruption”- • Johnson was CA governor in 1910 and in U.S. Senate in 1916

  4. Reforming the Political Process • Samuel M. “Golden Rule” Jones- led reformation in Toledo, Ohio • He introduced profit sharing in his factory • Returned as mayor and made playgrounds, a free kindergarten, lodging houses for the homeless, and open air churches for all faiths

  5. Reforming the Political Process • Reformation attacks the roots of urban misgovernment • Roots are uncontrolled private monopolies that control water, gas, and electricity and public transportation • Reformers pass laws to regulate above utilities • Mayor Johnson of Cleveland “the best mayor of the best governed city in the United States”

  6. Reforming the Political Process • Want structural changes in the city government • Vote for mayors • Galveston, Texas after hurricane adopted a city commission • Dayton, Ohio became a city-manager system after flood

  7. Reforming the Political Process • Who were reformers? • Middle class clergymen, newspaper editors • Businesses supported city wide elections • Wanted to improve “ municipal services”for urban dwellers

  8. Reforming the Political Process • Reform expanded to state level • Secret ballots • No peer pressure • Direct primaries • Voters narrow candidates, not officials

  9. Reforming the Political Process • Initiative • Citizens propose legislation • Referendum • Polls to vote on controversial legislation • Recall • Vote to remove elected officials from office and replace them

  10. Reforming the Political Process • Changes intended to further democratize American government and voting • Sadly these changes weakened party loyalty and reduced voter interest