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What is the cost of Progress?. Progressive Era US History Alameda High School. 1890-1920. At home Unit: Gilded Age & Progressive Response Abroad: America Becomes a World Power American Expansion WWI. Gilded Age (What does gilded mean?). Immigration Industrialization Urbanization

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what is the cost of progress

What is the cost of Progress?

Progressive Era

US History

Alameda High School

1890 1920
  • At home Unit:
    • Gilded Age & Progressive Response
  • Abroad: America Becomes a World Power
    • American Expansion
    • WWI
so then what was the progressive response

Gilded Age (What does gilded mean?)




Politics (Lack of Laws/Regulation)

Life: Education, Discrimination, Free Time

So then…what was theProgressive response!
progressives respond to conditions brought on by rapid industrialization
Progressives respond to conditions brought on by rapid Industrialization!
  • The Industrial Revolution was the second greatest shift in all of human history, following the agricultural revolution which occurred about 11,000 years ago.
  • Industrialization effected EVERYTHING about life, including urbanization (movement to cities)
  • Cities weren’t quite ready for the safe influx of people and living conditions were harsh
  • The separation between rich and poor was huge
homework memorize the following vocabulary list for a pop quiz next week
Homework: Memorize the following vocabulary list for a pop quiz next week…
  • Gilded Age
  • Progressivism
  • Middle Class
  • Working Class
  • Robber Barons
  • Captains of Industry
  • Corruption
  • Muckraking
  • Social Darwinism
  • Gospel of wealth
  • Industrialism
  • Urbanization
  • Progress
  • Immigration
  • Labor unions
  • Party platform
introductory film
Introductory Film
  • The Century: America’s Time
the american industrial revolution led to gilded age america
The American Industrial Revolution led to Gilded Age America
  • One of biggest shifts in human history, parelled to the agricultural revolution 12,000 years ago
  • America leading industrial producer by 1900
  • Increased wages and job opportunities, but often terrible living & working conditions
how did industry improve life
How did industry improve life?
  • Increased wage for industrial workers
  • More jobs available
  • White collar jobs increased and a new middle class emerged (though it was still small)
  • Cities grew quickly
  • America was leading in all industrial categories making the country wealthy
big business robber barons social darwinism
Big Business, Robber Barons & Social Darwinism
  • Corporations were new and this transformed capitalism
  • Robber Barons v. Captains of Industry…more jobs for workers, but often low pay and harsh working conditions
  • Social Darwinism: survival of fittest in gaining wealth
  • Social Gospel emerges as practice of wealthy

John D. Rockefeller


monopolies trusts
Monopolies & Trusts
  • Corporate consolidation was new & common practice of 19th century
    • Monopolies: only one business dominates industry
    • Trust: separate companies under one managing board
    • This practice not regulated, and limited competition so they controlled price
    • Examples: Standard Oil Trust (Rockefeller) and Carnegie Steel (Andrew Carnegie)
role of the political boss

Boss Tweed ran NYC

municipal graft and scandal
  • Some political bosses were corrupt
  • Some political machines used fake names and voted multiple times to ensure victory (“Vote early and often”) – called Election fraud
  • Graft (bribes) was common among political bosses
  • Construction contracts often resulted in “kick-backs”
  • The fact that police forces were hired by the boss prevented close scrutiny
the tweed ring scandal

William M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed, became head of Tammany Hall, NYC’s powerful Democratic political machines

Between 1869-1871, Tweed led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the city

Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortion

Tweed was sentenced to 12 years in jail – released after one, arrested again, and escaped to Spain

Boss Tweed

civil service replaces patronage
  • Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system
  • The system had been based on Patronage; giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get elected
  • Reformers pushed for an adoption of a merit system of hiring the most qualified for jobs
  • The Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance

Applicants for federal jobs are required to take a Civil Service Exam

the worker in industrial america
The Worker in Industrial America
  • Job conditions harsh for many
  • While industrial wage rose, they still barely were a living wage
    • As a result, many times the entire family had to work which led to increase in child labor
  • With unions came better wages
  • No government regulation of working conditions often led to unsafe, unfair conditions for poor
  • Middle class nearly doubled, though still small

Child Labor in Mines


organized labor great strikes
Organized Labor & Great Strikes
  • Unions were discouraged by bosses
  • Some industries did organize such as railroads and their wages and conditions improved
  • Strikes were a tool of unions, example is Pullman Strike of 1894

Pullman Strike, 1894


draw the following 4 characters in your notebook answer the question
Draw the following 4 characters in your notebook & answer the question…
    • A factory owner
    • A factory worker
    • A union organizer
    • A Government official
in the west
In the West
  • The country was expanding
  • Farming was becoming more efficient and goods could move easily because of railroads
  • Populism was taking hold, seeking to align with urban progressives. They believed in:
    • Increased circulation of money
    • Unlimited minting of silver
    • A progressive income tax
    • Gov’t ownership of communication & transportation systems
  • Turner thesis and the closing of the frontier often led to xenophobia
  • Rural conditions looked different from urban centers of the east
discrimination at the turn of the century was heavy
Discrimination at the turn of the century was heavy…
  • Plessey v. Ferguson legalizes segregation of the races, Jim Crow laws big in South
  • Xenophobia (fear of immigrants)
  • While pubic education expanded, all people did not have equal access
    • Women
    • Immigrants & assimilation
    • View of minority education (Washington v. Dubois)booker.notebook
what was it like to live in a gilded age city 1870 1900 ch 8
What was it like to live in a Gilded Age city? (1870-1900) (CH 8)
  • With industrialization came urbanization
  • Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions
  • Heavy pollution
  • No government assistance for poor
  • No labor regulations
  • No wage regulations
  • Xenophobia
  • Large waves of immigrants, esp from Eastern and southern Europe


cities grow
Cities Grow…
  • 6 cities over ½ million by 1900 (up from 2) and 32 ¼ million (up from 7)
  • By 1920, over ½ of Americans lived in cities with 68 cities having over 100,000 people
  • Life was harsh, esp. for immigrants
    • Housing was slum like in tenements
    • No ventilation, sanitary system, sewage system, or garbage and no fire protection
    • City governments were corrupt
a nation united
A Nation United?
  • NO!
  • Collection of political factions and machines
  • Ghettos, neighborhoods and ethnic enclaves
  • Extreme rich and poor all competing to realize THEIR “American” Dream!


immigrants and urbanization



new immigrants
  • Millions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
  • Some came to escape difficult conditions, others known as “birds of passage” intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland
  • Between 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United States
  • Before 1890, most were from western and northern Europe
  • After 1890, most came from southern and eastern Europe
  • All were looking for opportunity
  • Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West Coast
  • Some were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servants
  • An anti-Chinese immigration act by Congress curtailed immigration after 1882

Many Chinese men worked for the railroads

  • In 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers
  • The U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coast
  • By 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast
the west indies and mexico
  • Between 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States form the West Indies
  • They came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands
  • Mexicans, too, immigrated to the U.S. to find work and flee political turmoil – 700,000 Mexicans arrived in the early 20th century
life in the new land
  • In the late 19th century most immigrants arrived via boats
  • The trip from Europe took about a month, while it took about 3 weeks from Asia
  • The trip was arduous and many died along the way
  • Destination was Ellis Island for Europeans, and Angel Island for Asians
ellis island new york
  • Ellis Island was the arrival point for European immigrants
  • They had to pass inspection at the immigration stations
  • Processing took hours, and the sick were sent home
  • Immigrants also had to show that they were not criminals, had some money ($25), and were able to work
  • From 1892-1924, 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island’s facilities
friction develops
  • While some immigrants tried to assimilate into American culture, others kept to themselves and created ethnic communities
  • Committed to their own culture, but also trying hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-Americans, etc
  • Some native born Americans disliked the immigrants unfamiliar customs and languages – friction soon developed

Chinatowns are found in many major cities

immigrant restrictions
  • As immigration increased, so did anti-immigrant feelings among natives
  • Nativism (favoritism toward native-born Americans) led to anti-immigrant organizations and governmental restrictions against immigration
  • In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which limited Chinese immigration until 1943

Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycotts

why were people immigrating to the united states at this time where were they from
Why were people immigrating to the United States at this time? Where were they from?
  • US was extremely xenophobic at the turn of the century…
    • Link to political cartoons anti immigration Cartoons.doc
    • why:?
  • Why were immigrants coming?
    • Push v. Pull factors
    • Largest period of immigration in US history
    • Fleeing revolutionary upheavals (ex. Mexico), fleeing religious persecution (ex. Jews in E Europe), economic necessity (ex SE Europe)
  • Life like for immigrants…
    • Unsafe factory work, unhealthy ghettos (slums), life desperate cycle of poverty, exhausting labor and early death
the challenges of urbanization
  • Rapid urbanization occurred in the late 19th century in the Northeast & Midwest
  • Most immigrants settled incities because of the available jobs & affordable housing
  • By 1910, immigrants made up more than half the population of 18 major American cities
migration from country to city
  • Rapid improvements in farm technology (tractors, reapers, steel plows) made farming more efficient in the late 19th century
  • It also meant less labor was needed to do the job
  • Many rural people left for cities to find work- including almost ¼ million African Americans

Discrimination and segregation were often the reality for African Americans who migrated North

urban problems
  • Problems in American cities in the late 19th and early 20th century included:
  • Housing: overcrowded tenements were unsanitary
  • Sanitation: garbage was often not collected, polluted air

Famous photographer Jacob Riis captured the struggle of living in crowded tenements

urban problems continued
  • Transportation:Cities struggled to provide adequate transit systems
  • Water: Without safe drinking water cholera and typhoid fever was common
  • Crime: As populations increased thieves flourished
  • Fire: Limited water supply and wooden structures combined with the use of candles led to many major urban fires – Chicago 1871 and San Francisco 1906 were two major fires

Harper’s Weekly image of Chicagoans fleeing the fire over the Randolph Street bridge in 1871

to summarize the gilded age
To Summarize the Gilded Age

Wealthy industrialists


Life easier

American wealthy & powerful

  • Industrialism
  • Need for cheap labor
    • Immigration
    • Exploitation of workers
  • Urbanization
    • Urban squalor
  • Need for Change
ideas for reform emerge
Ideas for reform emerge…
  • The Progressive Movement!
  • Refresh our thinking: How does technology impact humanity? Response? Adapt?
  • Today, this is happening? What problems are going on?
  • Are people trying to solve them?
  • Watch video – if this group is a modern progressive:
    • What problems are they trying to solve?
    • How did they get people to care about them?
    • What solutions do they advocate?
timeline activity use the timelines to preview these questions about the progressives
Timeline Activity: Use the timelines to preview these questions about the Progressives:
  • What problems do the Progressives seem to be trying to solve?
  • Who-individuals and organizations-were the Progressives?
  • How did the Progressives get people to care about their problems?
  • What solutions did they advocate?
the origins of the progressive movement
The Origins of the Progressive Movement
  • Roots of 20th Century Reform
    • Populists
    • Nativism
    • Prohibition
    • Purity crusades
    • Charity reform
    • Social gospel philosophy
    • Settlement houses
  • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/progressivism/index.cfm
who were the progressives
Who were the Progressives?
  • Product of a political debate surrounding progress in America, so historians call the period from 1890-1920 the Progressive Era
  • Difficult to define them b/c they had many different beliefs, never a unified group
  • Generally:
    • White Middle class (often women)
    • Believed in 4 common things
      • Gov’t should be accountable to citizens
      • Gov’t should curb the power & influence of wealthy
      • Gov’t should have expanded powers to improve lives of citizens
      • Gov’t should be more efficient and less corrupt
what were their goals remember different sometimes contradictory
End to “white slavery” (prostitution and sweat shops)


“Americanization” of immigrants

Anti-trust legislation

Rate regulation of private utilities

Full gov’t ownership of private utilities

Women’s suffrage

End to child labor

What were their goals? Remember…different & sometimes contradictory:
progressive tactics
Progressive Tactics
  • Muckraking: Journalists and authors who, some say, stretched the truth to sensationalization events to draw public attention to problems
    • Example: Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
  • Organized
  • Political Lobby
  • Private Charities/Settlement Houses
  • BY 1912, have a national political platform to run as a 3rd party.
reformers mobilize

Jacob Riis was a reformer who through his pictures hoped for change– he influenced many

The Social Gospel Movement preached salvation through service to the poor

Some reformers established Settlement Homes

These homes provided a place to stay, classes, health care and other social services

Jane Addams was the most famous member of the Settlement Movement (founded Hull House in Chicago)

Jane Addams and Hull House

primary document analysis
Primary Document Analysis
  • http://chnm.gmu.edu/7tah/units/unit-lessons.html
  • You must produce:
    • Poster for your assigned area of concern for the Progressives
      • Child Labor
      • Working Conditions
      • Rise of Organized Labor
      • Women’s Suffrage
      • Temperance Movement
    • Identify & Describe your topic
      • Choose 3 primary documents that best exemplify your cause & complete an analysis form of it
      • prepare for presentation on your subject
exemplar rubric on board your final product
Exemplar & Rubric On BoardYour Final Product
  • In your analysis of your primary document packet, you are looking for problems, people, methods & solutions to your assigned topic
    • Read documents & complete analysis forms
  • Select the photos, cartoons and documents they want to exhibit and write captions for each in their own words
  • Place into final exhibit & rehearse presentation
  • Based on the presentations, write three paragraphs, one each to
    • Describe the three biggest problems Progressives were facing
    • Explain the role of the key individuals or groups in the movement
    • Describe the methods and solutions they offered

Muckraking:Comparing Then and Now: Is muckraking more or less successful today than in the Progressive period? Why do you think? How is it the same/different? What did we learn from the Progressive journalists?

read the article
Read the article…
  • Read the article that describes the biggest problems facing the nation (you might not agree-maybe there are others you care about…perhaps you want to focus locally or globally)
you decide storyboard infomerical or write a song
You Decide…Storyboard Infomerical or Write a Song
  • What is the biggest issue facing your generation?
  • Who is concerned about it?
  • What methods are being used to combat it?
  • What goals to reformers have?
  • What do you think should be done?
now its time to evaluate the success of the movement
Now, its time to evaluate the success of the movement!
  • Page 389-407 describe the political successes of the Progressive Era
  • As you read these pages, record all of the legislation which the Progressive achieved in your notebook use chart on board
  • After you are finished, look back at your journaling activity & notes from the presentations
  • Based on your analysis of side-by-side comparison, write a five paragraph essay which responds to the question
    • To what extent were the Progressives successful in achieving their goals?
    • Outline & rough draft IS HOMEWORK
    • Peer edit Monday before conclude content, HW will be final copy
to what extent were the progressives successful in achieving their goals
To what extent were the Progressives successful in achieving their goals?
  • THESIS/Introduction : Get to the Point! Counter agruement, your arguement. Be assertive. For example, “Progressive America was a turbulent world in which greed and corruption ruled. In this context many middle-class reformers came together to make the US a better place. While many historians would argue that the Progressive Movement was highly successful in combating the injustices of their time, the evidence will demonstrate that they fell short of meeting their own reform goals.”
    • I. Area A
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Transition Sentence
    • II. Area B
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Transition Sentence
    • III. Area C
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Evidentiary Support
      • Transition Sentence
    • IV. Conclude
  • Write a thesis statement which gets directly to the point
  • Make sure all evidence supports topic sentences
  • Make sure all topic sentences support Thesis
the limits of progressivism
The Limits of Progressivism

Chapter 11, Section 3

  • The changes made by Progressives were limited to certain groups in the United States.
  • Progressives championed municipal reforms, but did little for tenant or migrant farmers.
  • Progressive Presidents took little action to pursue social justice reforms.
  • Wilson continued the Jim Crow practice, begun under Taft, of separating the races in federal offices.
  • At the 1912 Progressive Party convention, Roosevelt declined to seat black delegates from the South for fear of alienating white Southern Progressives.
  • By 1916, the reform spirit had nearly died. It was replaced by American concerns about World War I.
women s suffrage
Women’s Suffrage
  • Go to textbook slides
  • General Classes: Reading Comprehension Questions after notes
  • Honors: Finish essay for HW
  • Group assessment based on standards
  • You may utilize your resources
  • 50 Minutes
    • Political Cartoon
    • Sinclair excerpt/muckraking (4 ?) Document Based
    • Define Progressive Era
    • Immigrant experience (expected streets paved with gold, what was reality)
    • How did Progressives effect role of federal gov’t?
    • Immigrants: settlement house worker v. nativist
    • Robber barons or captains of industry?
    • Why did population in cities boom?
    • Gilded Age?
    • What was cost of Industrial Revolution?