Animal Diversity & Systems From Invertebrates to Vertebrates
The “Big 5” of Kingdom Animalia • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Heterotrophic • Motile • No cell walls
Taxonomy Review • Kingdom • Phylum (or Division) - Class -Order - ??? - ??? - ??? Which group is the largest? Which is the smallest?
Student Misconceptions: • SpongeBob really wears “so called” square-pants. • SpongeBob can actually digest “crabby patties”. • SpongeBob can “run and play” as seen on TV.
Filter feeders (intracellular digestion) Diffusion w/surrounding water Hard spicules for protection Phylum Porifera • Ex: sponges • aquatic • No tissues/organs
Digestive System • Intracellular digestion • Can only eat tiny food particles (smaller than cells) • Ex: sponges • Extracellular digestion • Can eat big food; must have gut of some type • Ex. All other animals
Digestive System • Incomplete digestive system • Only one opening; inefficient! • Ex: jellyfish & flatworms • Complete digestive system • Two openings (mouth & anus) • Ex: all other higher animals!
Phylum Cnidaria • aquatic • Radial symmetry • Stinging cells to get food • Incomplete digestive cavity • Simple muscle & nerve cells Ex: jellyfish, corals, sea anemones
Animals exhibit symmetry: • Asymmetry • No symmetry • ex: sponges • Radial Symmetry • No front/back, only top/bottom • Ex: jellyfish • Bilateral Symmetry • Front/back/top/bottom • Ex: most all other animals • Nerves allow for movement and sensory input • Cephalization – is the centralization of nerve tissue to the head region – better movement/ brain formation
Flat! Aquatic or parasitic Bilateral – head region Tissues, but no organs Incomplete digestive system Simple muscles & nerves No body cavity Phylum Platyhelminthes Ex: Planaria (free-living); tapeworms & flukes (parasitic)
Having a body cavity allows for more specialization of organs: • Acoelomates • No cavity; Ex: flatworms • Pseudocoelomates • “false” cavity; Ex: round worms • Coelomates • True cavity; Ex: earthworms & all higher
Ex: roundworms, pinworms round Most are parasitic Complete digestive system Bilateral symmetry Pseudocoelomate Phylum Nematoda
Nervous System - Nerves allow for movement and sensory input • Some animals like sponges, have no nervous tissues. • Others, like the jellyfish have some cells to detect stimuli. • Most animals developed nerves and a brain.
Phylum Mollusca • Soft bodies • Mantle secretes shell • Bilateral symmetry • Coelomate • Complete digestive system
Phylum MolluscaClass Gastropoda “stomach-foot” molluscs ex: snails & slugs sensory tissue 1 shell* herbivores/predators
Phylum MolluscaClass Bivalvia “two shell” molluscs ex: clams, oysters, scallops filter feeders aquatic
Phylum MolluscaClass Cephalopoda “head-foot” molluscs closed circulatory system ex: octopus, squid, nautilus brain; great vision & mvmt No shell use ink against predators
Phylum Echinodermata“spiny skin” Sea stars; sea urchins; sand dollars; sea fans
Complexity of Form • Coelomates • True cavity; Ex: earthworms & all higher • Body sections are sign of more complexity in function • Appendages (like arms, legs and antennae show complexity too Compartments allow for specialization of function
Ex: earthworm, leech Segmented (ringed) Typically in soil; some parasitic or aquatic Coelomate – true cavity Brain & sensory tissue Hermaphrodites Phylum Annelida
Skeletal – Muscular System Muscles allow for movement, but must pull on something rigid - could pull on… - water filled tubes - shells • Exoskeletons - like on arthropods • Endoskeletons - like bones
Phylum Arthropoda“jointed feet” • Jointed appendages • Body segments • Exoskeleton of chitin • Coelomate • Bilateral symmetry
Phylum ArthropodaClass Insecta • Wings & 6 legs • 3 body segments • Compound eyes • Trachea & spiracles for respiration • Terrestrial Most numerous group of animals and most endangered – many specialized adaptations
Phylum ArthropodaClass Arachnida Spiders Scorpions Mites Ticks
Phylum ArthropodaClass Arachnida • 8 legs • No wings or antennae • 2 body segments • Compound/simple eyes • Some spin silk/webs • Carnivores/parasites • Terrestrial Abdomen Cephalothorax
Phylum ArthropodaClass Crustacea Crayfish Lobsters Crabs Shrimp Roly-polies
Phylum ArthropodaClass Crustacea • 10 legs (front usually modified to catch prey) • 2 sets antennae • 2 body segments • Gills for respiration • Aquatic; “swimmerets” (roly-polies = terrestrial)
Phylum ArthropodaClass Chilopoda • Ex: centipedes • 1 pair legs per segment • 1 set antennae • Predators, often poison
Phylum ArthropodaClass Diplopoda • Ex: Millipedes • 2 pair legs per segment • 1 set antennae • Herbivores/detritivores (eat dead stuff)
Embryo Formation • Label on your paper: A = zygote E = blastula G = gastrula
Animal Reproduction • Sexual – exchange gametes • Asexual – no gamete exchange • Internal Fertilization – usually smaller #s of offspring; more parental care • External Fertilization - usually larger #s of offspring; less parental care
Embryo Formation • Label on your paper: A = zygote E = blastula G = gastrula
Circulatory System • Simple diffusion • Nutrients move in and out from surrounding water • Open circulatory system • Have heart but no blood vessels, just cavities for blood • Closed circulatory system • Have heart & blood vessels
Respiratory System • Some animals move gases by simple diffusion. • Most have developed special structures to move gases. These include: • skin, spiracles, book lungs, gills, lungs
Phylum Echinodermata • Radial symmetry* • Water vascular system = system of tubes for mvmt & transport • No brain; has nerve ring • Regeneration
Organ systems in animals work together to do certain things: • Integumentary – Protects against pathogens; helps regulate body temperature, keratin formed from epidermis waterproofs skin, forms hair and nails; body covering • Skin; epidermis, keratin; dermis, sebaceous glands (oil) and sweat glands • Skeletal – Provides structure; supports and protects internal organs; axial includes skull, vertebral column and rib cage; appendicular includes limbs; support; what muscles pull on • 206 bones; osteocytes, axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, joints; fixed, moveable; ligaments, tendons
Organ systems in animals work together to do certain things: • Muscular – Provides structure; supports and moves trunk and limbs; moves substances through body; skeletal – conscious movement; cardiac – heart; smooth – unconscious movement like digestive tract; movement • Muscles (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth) • Nervous – Cerebrum controls intelligence/creativity; cerebral cortex controls and coordinates body movements and senses; medula oblongata helps monitor and maintain other body systems (homeostasis); somatic n. system controls voluntary system; autonomic n. system controls activities that are not under conscious control • Brain; cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla oblongata; spinal cord, nerves; cell body, dentrites, axon; sensory neurons, motor neurons, synapse, sense organs, receptors; five senses.
Organ systems in animals work together to do certain things: • Circulatory – Transports nutrients, and wastes to and from all body tissues. Pulmonary circulation – right side of heart; systemic circulation – left side of heart; rbc – hemoglobin/O2; wbc – immune response; platelets – clotting. • Heart; right atrium/ventricle, left atrium/ventricle; blood vessels – veins, arteries, capillaries; blood – red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets. • Respiratory – Carries air into and out of lungs, where gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) are exchanged, breathing is mechanical movement of air, respiration is diffusion of O2/CO2 across membranes; gas exchange • Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, diaphragm
Organ systems in animals work together to do certain things: • Digestive – Stores and digests food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates waste, stomach – HCL, pepsin; pancreas – enzymes, insulin; liver – bile (breaks down fats); break down food • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small and large intestines • Excretory – Eliminates waste; maintains water and chemical balance; ammonia converted to urea • Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, skin, lungs • Reproductive – Produces ova and milk in females, sperm in males, and offspring after fertilization • Ovaries, uterus, mammary glands (in females), testes (in males)
Organ systems in animals work together to do certain things: • Immune – Provides protection against infection and disease • Lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells (lymphocytes) • Endocrine – Maintains homeostasis; regulates metabolism, water and mineral balance, growth and sexual development, and reproduction • Glands ex: adrenal – metabolism, stress; thyroid – growth/develop; pancreas – insulin; hypothalamus – controls pituitary; testis – testosterone; ovary - estrogen