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Which of the following did NOT occur during the Cambrian Explosion?. Animals acquired specialized cells, tissues, and organs. There was an extraordinary growth in animal diversity. Animals evolved simpler body plans. Animal appendages became specialized for a variety of functions.

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which of the following did not occur during the cambrian explosion
Which of the following did NOT occur during the Cambrian Explosion?
  • Animals acquired specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
  • There was an extraordinary growth in animal diversity.
  • Animals evolved simpler body plans.
  • Animal appendages became specialized for a variety of functions.
slide2
Paleontologists discover the fossil of an animal that lived 570 million years ago. This animal probably
  • was flat and plate-shaped.
  • had a hard shell.
  • was organized into a front and a back end.
  • lived on land.
one characteristic that made early animals different from all animals of today was their
One characteristic that made early animals different from all animals of today was their
  • habitat.
  • body segmentation.
  • body plan.
  • bilateral symmetry.
the diversity of invertebrate phyla underwent its greatest increase
The diversity of invertebrate phyla underwent its greatest increase
  • before the Cambrian Period.
  • during the Cambrian Period.
  • after the Cambrian Period.
  • both before and after the Cambrian Period.
animals of the cambrian period typically had all of the following except
Animals of the Cambrian Period typically had all of the following EXCEPT
  • body symmetry.
  • segmentation.
  • some type of skeleton.
  • a backbone.
slide6

Biologists trace the evolution of invertebrate groups by studying their appearance in the fossil record. For which invertebrate would this type of study be most difficult?

  • an armored worm
  • a jellyfish
  • a snail
  • a clam
which of the following group of invertebrates are deuterostomes
Which of the following group of invertebrates are deuterostomes?
  • worms
  • arthropods
  • mollusks
  • echinoderms
the classification of an animal as a deuterostome or a protostome is based on
The classification of an animal as a deuterostome or a protostome is based on
  • its body symmetry.
  • whether or not it has a coelom.
  • what happens to the blastopore.
  • the number of germ layers it has.
a body cavity that forms between the germ layers is called a an
A body cavity that forms between the germ layers is called a(an)
  • coelom.
  • blastopore.
  • mesoderm.
  • ectoderm.
an acoelomate is an animal that has
An acoelomate is an animal that has
  • a body cavity lined with endoderm and ectoderm.
  • a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm.
  • a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm.
  • no body cavity between the germ layers.
some type of body symmetry is found in all invertebrates except
Some type of body symmetry is found in all invertebrates EXCEPT
  • cnidarians.
  • mollusks.
  • sponges.
  • flatworms.
which invertebrates exhibit radial symmetry
Which invertebrates exhibit radial symmetry?
  • cnidarians and echinoderms
  • sponges and flatworms
  • roundworms and annelids
  • mollusks and arthropods
cephalization refers to the
Cephalization refers to the
  • division of the body into upper and lower sides.
  • concentration of sense organs and nerve cells in the front of the body.
  • joining together of specialized cells to form tissues.
  • formation of a body cavity between the germ layers.
animal x has no coelom and no cephalization animal x is either a
Animal X has no coelom and no cephalization. Animal X is either a
  • mollusk or an arthropod.
  • flatworm or a roundworm.
  • mollusk or an echinoderm.
  • sponge or a cnidarian.
animal y has three germ layers bilateral symmetry and no coelom animal y is a an
Animal Y has three germ layers, bilateral symmetry, and no coelom. Animal Y is a(an)
  • sponge.
  • arthropod.
  • flatworm.
  • mollusk.
in figure 29 1 the space labeled x is called a
In Figure 29–1, the space labeled X is called a
  • protostome.
  • deuterostome.
  • coelom.
  • pseudocoelom.
one animal that has a body construction like that shown in figure 29 1 is a
One animal that has a body construction like that shown in Figure 29–1 is a
  • flatworm.
  • roundworm.
  • sponge.
  • jellyfish.
which of the following characteristics is not found in any radially symmetrical invertebrate
Which of the following characteristics is NOT found in any radially symmetrical invertebrate?
  • cephalization
  • specialized cells
  • specialized organs
  • a coelom
one way to distinguish a roundworm from an annelid is to
One way to distinguish a roundworm from an annelid is to
  • count their germ layers.
  • examine their body symmetry.
  • compare the structure of their body cavities.
  • determine whether they have cephalization.
which sequence correctly expresses the order in which major invertebrate features evolved
Which sequence correctly expresses the order in which major invertebrate features evolved?
  • three germ layers ® tissues ® multicellularity ® coelom
  • coelom ® tissues ® three germ layers ® multicellularity
  • multicellularity ® tissues ® three germ layers ® coelom
  • multicellularity ® three germ layers ® coelom ® tissues
slide22
Which of the following invertebrates has a closed circulatory system, nephridia, and a hydrostatic skeleton?
  • an echinoderm
  • an annelid
  • a flatworm
  • a sponge
if an animal has a digestive tract an open circulatory system and an exoskeleton it could be a an
If an animal has a digestive tract, an open circulatory system, and an exoskeleton, it could be a(an)
  • arthropod.
  • echinoderm.
  • cnidarian.
  • roundworm.
invertebrates that break down their food through intracellular digestion include
Invertebrates that break down their food through intracellular digestion include
  • annelids.
  • mollusks.
  • arthropods.
  • sponges.
which invertebrate has a gastrovascular cavity
Which invertebrate has a gastrovascular cavity?
  • arthropod
  • mollusk
  • cnidarian
  • roundworm
a true digestive tract is found in
A true digestive tract is found in
  • annelids.
  • sponges.
  • cnidarians.
  • flatworms.
one difference between a gastrovascular cavity and a digestive tract is that
One difference between a gastrovascular cavity and a digestive tract is that
  • a gastrovascular cavity has specialized regions, but a digestive tract does not.
  • a gastrovascular cavity has one opening, and a digestive tract has two.
  • digestion is extracellular in a gastrovascular cavity and intracellular in a digestive tract.
  • food can be processed more efficiently in a gastrovascular cavity than in a digestive tract.
gases diffuse most efficiently across a respiratory membrane if the membrane is
Gases diffuse most efficiently across a respiratory membrane if the membrane is
  • thick and dry.
  • thin and dry.
  • thick and moist.
  • thin and moist.
in insects gas exchange takes place through a network of
In insects, gas exchange takes place through a network of
  • tracheal tubes.
  • mantle cavities.
  • book lungs.
  • blood vessels.
slide31
Most flatworms are small and very thin. Therefore, they can supply their cells with oxygen and remove metabolic wastes by means of
  • simple diffusion between body surface and the environment.
  • an open circulatory system without a heart.
  • an open circulatory system with one heart.
  • a closed circulatory system with one heart.
the distinguishing feature of a closed circulatory system is that
The distinguishing feature of a closed circulatory system is that
  • it does not include a heart.
  • blood is contained within vessels that extend throughout the body.
  • blood is kept at low pressure.
  • blood is circulated less efficiently than in an open circulatory system.
in an open circulatory system blood
In an open circulatory system, blood
  • never leaves the heart.
  • does not come in direct contact with the tissues.
  • is always contained within a system of blood vessels.
  • is pumped through a system of sinuses.
an example of an animal with an open circulatory system is a an
An example of an animal with an open circulatory system is a(an)
  • sponge.
  • cnidarian.
  • arthropod.
  • annelid.
slide35
The giant squid is a large, very active invertebrate. What type of circulatory system do you think it has?
  • open circulatory system
  • closed circulatory system
  • water vascular system
  • no circulatory system
which of the following is a function of an excretory system
Which of the following is a function of an excretory system?
  • eliminating nitrogenous wastes from the body
  • exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment
  • gathering and processing information from the environment
  • obtaining and digesting food
which structures are not part of an excretory system
Which structures are NOT part of an excretory system?
  • flame cells
  • spiracles
  • Malpighian tubules
  • nephridia
what would happen to a flatworm if its flame cells stopped functioning
What would happen to a flatworm if its flame cells stopped functioning?
  • It would be unable to pump blood.
  • It would accumulate urea.
  • It would swell.
  • It would dry up.
which of the following best describes uric acid
Which of the following best describes uric acid?
  • more toxic than ammonia, leaves the body through excretory pores
  • more toxic than ammonia, leaves the body through the rectum
  • less toxic than ammonia, leaves the body through excretory pores
  • less toxic than ammonia, leaves the body through the rectum
slide40
Expelling uric acid from the body and having a respiratory surface that is covered with mucus are two ways that some invertebrates can
  • process food more efficiently.
  • reduce water loss.
  • respond to their environment.
  • supply oxygen to their cells.
the eyespots of flatworms can
The eyespots of flatworms can
  • detect the presence of light.
  • detect motion.
  • detect color.
  • form images.
an endoskeleton is a
An endoskeleton is a
  • shell of a mollusk.
  • fluid-filled body cavity that supports the muscles.
  • structural support located inside the body.
  • hard body covering made of chitin.
which of the following invertebrates would be most likely to reproduce by external fertilization
Which of the following invertebrates would be most likely to reproduce by external fertilization?
  • an arachnid
  • an insect
  • a land snail
  • a cnidarian
which statement refers to sexual reproduction
Which statement refers to sexual reproduction?
  • All offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
  • Offspring are produced from the fusion of male and female gametes.
  • An organism breaks into pieces that grow into new individuals.
  • New individuals are produced from outgrowths of the parent’s body wall.
animals with skeletons were more numerous in the cambrian period than in earlier periods
Animals with skeletons were more numerous in the Cambrian Period than in earlier periods. _________________________
  • True
  • False
mollusks are classified as pseudocoelomates
Mollusks are classified as pseudocoelomates. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide48
During early development, the zygote divides repeatedly to form a hollow ball of cells called a blastopore. _________________________
  • True
  • False
in deuterostomes the blastopore forms a an mouth
In deuterostomes, the blastopore forms a(an) mouth. _________________________
  • True
  • False
arthropods have bilateral symmetry
Arthropods have bilateral symmetry. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide52
The difference between a coelomate and a pseudocoelomate has to do with the lining of the body cavity. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide53
An animal that feeds on other animals by swallowing them whole is most likely to use intracellular digestion. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide54

Animal A has a respiratory surface area of 50 mm2, and animal B has a respiratory surface area of 25 mm2. If other features of their respiratory surfaces are the same, the rate of gas exchange will be greater in animal A. _________________________

  • True
  • False
book lungs and tracheal tubes are used for breathing in terrestrial invertebrates
Book lungs and tracheal tubes are used for breathing in terrestrial invertebrates. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide56
If an animal’s blood never comes in direct contact with its tissues, the animal has an open circulatory system. _________________________
  • True
  • False
slide57

The excretory system of animal X functions to conserve body water while removing nitrogenous wastes. Animal X most likely lives on land. _________________________

  • True
  • False
slide60

The eruption of a volcano creates a new island in the ocean. Animals that settle on the island can increase in number most rapidly if they reproduce asexually. _________________________

  • True
  • False
fossils are tracks and burrows made by soft bodied animals whose bodies were not fossilized

0 of 5

____________________ fossils are tracks and burrows made by soft-bodied animals whose bodies were not fossilized.
slide63

0 of 5

Over the course of evolution, ____________________ allowed animals to increase in body size with a minimum of new genetic material.
the only invertebrates that lack both cephalization and a coelom are cnidarians and

0 of 5

The only invertebrates that lack both cephalization and a coelom are cnidarians and ____________________.
echinoderms differ from cnidarians in that echinoderms develop from three layers

0 of 5

Echinoderms differ from cnidarians in that echinoderms develop from three ____________________ layers.
the function of the structure labeled x in figure 29 2 is to rid the body of excess

0 of 5

The function of the structure labeled X in Figure 29–2 is to rid the body of excess ____________________.
slide75

0 of 5

If an animal moves by contracting muscles that surround a body cavity filled with fluid, the animal has a(an) ____________________ skeleton.

slide76

0 of 5

In some invertebrates, eggs are fertilized outside the female’s body. This type of fertilization is known as _________________________ fertilization.

slide80

0 of 5

Animal Z has three germ layers, a true coelom, and cephalization. Which invertebrate phyla could animal Z could be a member of?
slide91

0 of 5

What can you infer about the habitat of an invertebrate that eliminates nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid?
slide92

0 of 5

Which of the three main kinds of skeletal systems would be least likely to function properly in an animal that is severely dehydrated?
slide94

0 of 5

The animals that existed before the Cambrian Period were probably very simple. Describe two ways in which these animals may have obtained nutrients.

slide95

0 of 5

Explain how studying the development of invertebrates can provide information that is useful in classifying invertebrates.
describe the changes in internal specialization that occurred during the evolution of animals

0 of 5

Describe the changes in internal specialization that occurred during the evolution of animals.
slide97

0 of 5

Compare and contrast cnidarians, mollusks, and echinoderms in terms of body symmetry, presence of a body cavity, and cephalization.
slide99

0 of 5

In some animals, blood can be distinguished from extracellular fluid, which is the liquid solution that surrounds the cells of an animal’s body. Explain why such a distinction is possible for animals with a closed circulatory system but not for animals with an open circulatory system.

slide100

0 of 5

To remove nitrogenous wastes, some terrestrial invertebrates convert ammonia to urea. Why is that advantageous for these invertebrates?
contrast hydrostatic skeletons exoskeletons and endoskeletons in terms of their structures

0 of 5

Contrast hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons in terms of their structures.
slide103

0 of 5

When individuals in a population are few and widely scattered, hermaphrodites might have a better chance of reproducing sexually than animals that have separate sexes. Explain why.