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Chapters 7–8. Caesar’s Triumph (the perfect tense) The flavor of the perfect The Trojan War retold (again!) in past tenses Third -declension nouns Sum : imperfect and future indicative (and meet possum ) Old MacDonald (dative of possession) Infinitive as noun. 1. Caesar’s Triumphs.

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chapters 7 8

Chapters 7–8

Caesar’s Triumph (the perfect tense)

The flavor of the perfect

The Trojan War retold (again!) in past tenses

Third-declension nouns

Sum: imperfect and future indicative (and meet possum)

Old MacDonald (dative of possession)

Infinitive as noun

1 caesar s triumphs
1. Caesar’s Triumphs

Suetonius, DivusIulius37:

On the day of the triumphal procession over Gaul, … he was almost thrown from his chariot when the axle broke. He climbed the Capitol by torch-light, with forty elephants bearing lamps to the right and to the left. …

1 caesar s triumphs the perfect tense
1. Caesar’s Triumphs (the perfect tense) …

In his triumph over Pontus, one of the carts in the processions had on the front of it a placard (titulus) with the words“I came, I saw, I conquered”, not detailing the events of the campaign, as was the case with the others, but emphasizing the speed with which it was completed.


1 caesar s triumphs the perfect tense1
1. Caesar’s Triumphs (the perfect tense) …

vēnī, vīdī, vīcī

vēnistī, vīdistī, vīcistī?

vēnit, vīdit, vīcit!

vēnimus, vīdimus, vīcimus

vēnistis, vīdistis, vīcistis?

vēnērunt, vīdērunt, vīcērunt!

(or: vēnēre, vīdēre, vīcēre)

1 caesar s triumphs the perfect tense2
1. Caesar’s Triumphs (the perfect tense) …

The perfect stem

amō, amāre, amāv-ī, amātus

timeō, timēre, timu-ī, —

videō, vidēre, vīd-ī, vīsus

sum, esse, fu-ī, futūrus

veniō, venīre, vēn-ī, ventus “to come”

vincō, vincere, vīc-ī, victus “to conquer”

vīvō, vīvere, vīx-ī, victūrus “to live”

vēnī, vīdī, vīxī(Voltaire)

3 the trojan war retold again in past tense s
3. The Trojan War retold (again!) in past tenses

1. Cassandra clāmāvit:

“ŌTrōiānī, equumne in Trōiamportāvistis?”


3. Sed tum novusdominusGraecusCassandramportāvitēTrōiā in Graeciam.Et puellamnōnamābatdominīfēmina…

2. Cassandra templumMinervaeintrāvit. “Ōdea nostra, templumtuumvēlavimus!”

SedAiax, virGraecus, festīnābatpuellaequenocuit.

4 third declension nouns1

paterpatriae [nom. sg.]

father of the fatherland

in vīnō, vēritās[nom. sg.]

In wine, truth

duxfēminafactī[nom. sg.]

A woman (was) leader of the deed

arslonga, vītabrevis [nom. sg.]

The art (is) long, life (is) short

mōs[nom. sg.]maiōrum[gen. pl.]

the custom of the ancestors

terrāmarīque [abl. sg.]

By land and sea

multās per gentēset multa per aequora[acc. pl.]

through many nations and through many seas(Catullus)

4. Third-declension nouns

Some phrases with third-declension nouns

4 third declension nouns declined
4. Third-declension nouns declined

Masculine and feminine

dux, ducis m.

māter, mātris f.

ars, artis

(-ium) f.


nūmen, nūminis n.

animal, animālis

(-ium) n.

4 third declension nouns some sentences and phrases

sol, sōlis m.

māter, mātris f.

ars, artis f.

mare, maris(-ium) n.

4. Third-declension nouns: some sentences and phrases

Sol viammonstrat.

Māterviam arte monstrat.

Sol viammātrīmonstrat.

Sol mare monstrat.

Sol mariamonstrat.

Via sōlemmonstrat.

Mare sōlemmonstrat.


sol magnus

sol pulcher

ars longa



mare altum



5 sum imperfect and future indicative and meet possum
5. Sum: Imperfect and future indicative (and: meet possum)

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus “to be; exist”

possum, potesse, potuī, — “to be able; can” (+ infin.)”

7 infinitive as neuter singular noun


To err is human


To have erred is human.

Venīre, vidēre, vincereestRōmānum.

To come, see, conquer is Roman.

Vēnisse, vīdisse, vīxisseestRōmānum.

To have come, to have seen, to have conquered is Roman.


To err does not please the Romans.


To love is to have lived.


I … can’t … help … falling in love … with … you.

7. Infinitive as (neuter singular) noun