What are Values? • Values are ideals that guide or qualify your personal conduct, interaction with others, and involvement in your career. Like morals, they • help you to distinguish what is right from what is wrong and • inform you on how you can conduct your life in a meaningful way.
Personal Values • Personal values are principles that define you as an individual. Personal values, such as honesty, reliability, and trust, determine how you will face the world and relate with people.
Cultural Values • Cultural values, like the practice of your faith and customs, are principles that sustain connections with your cultural roots. They help you feel connected to a larger community of people with similar backgrounds.
Beliefs • A Belief is a conviction in the truth of a proposition. • Beliefs are held without recourse to proof or evidence. • Belief Systems often deal with issues which cannot be explained by reason or logic –creation, the meaning of life, afterlife.
WORLDVIEWS • An organised and accepted set of ideas attempting to explain the social, cultural, physical and psychological world. • Linked to values and beliefs • Christian, Jewish and Muslim worldviews focus on human individuality • Hindu and Buddhist worldviews have a wider social perspective.
Rituals A ritual is a formalized, predetermined set of symbolic actions performed in a particular environment at a regular, recurring interval. The set of actions that comprise a ritual often include, but are not limited to, such things as recitation, singing, group processions, repetitive dance, manipulation of sacred objects Examples are,- Hindus performing Puja, Catholics taking Communion. Muslims praying.
Hierarchy • A hierarchy (from Greek ιερός-hieros, sacred, and άρχω-arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element.
Ideology • The body of doctrine, myth and symbols of a social movement, a social class or institution. • People who adopt ideologies often act in extreme ways because their ideology ( set of beliefs) makes them think they are special. • Islamic Fundamentalism, • Communism, Nazism, Zionism are ideologies
PHILOSOPHY • 1. Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means • 2. Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning. • 3. A system of thought based on or involving such inquiry • 4. The critical analysis of fundamental assumptions or beliefs. • 5. The disciplines presented in university curriculums of science and the liberal arts, except medicine, law, and theology. • 6. The discipline comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology. • 7. A set of ideas or beliefs relating to a particular field or activity; an underlying theory • 8. A system of values by which one lives
MYTHS • [Webster's] • a traditional story of unknown authorship, ostensibly with a historical basis, but serving usually to explain some phenomenon of nature, the origin of [humanity], or the customs, institutions, religious rites, etc. of a people; myths usually involve the exploits of gods and heroes.
Language-Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, eg-voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.
Globalisation The emergence of a global culture brought about by a variety of social and cultural developments such as: the existence of world information systems; the emergence of global patterns of consumption and consumerism; the growth of transnational corporations; the emergence of global sport like World Cup soccer; the spread of world tourism and the growth of global military and economic systems. It involves a consciousness of the world as a single place.
CONCEPTS FOR BELIEF SYSTEMS • values • beliefs • continuity • customs • norms • change • language • symbols • worldviews • philosophy • ideology • globalisation • power structures • ritual • hierarchy • life cycle • myth • conflict