slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Values PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Values

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Values - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 309 Views
  • Uploaded on

Values. Name and define five values you believe are especially important for students in the 21st century. Support your proposal with research, theory, and statements the requirements of being successful in an information age economy. How would recommend educators go about teaching those values?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Values' - Albert_Lan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Values

Name and define five values you believe are especially important for students in the 21st century. Support your proposal with research, theory, and statements the requirements of being successful in an information age economy. How would recommend educators go about teaching those values?

Developed by W. Huitt, 1999

slide2

Values

Values are defined in literature as everything from eternal ideas to behavioral actions.

  • Criteria for determining levels of goodness, worth or beauty.
  • Act of valuing
  • Part of the affective system
  • Also provide an important filter for selecting input and connecting thoughts and feelings to action
slide3

SCANS report (1991)

What work requires of schools: A SCANS report for America 2000. (1991). Washington, DC: The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

Values

  • Responsibility
  • Self-esteem
  • Sociability
  • Integrity
  • Honesty
slide4

Huitt (1997)

Huitt, W. (1997). The SCANS report revisited. Paper delivered at the Fifth Annual Gulf South Business and Vocational Education Conference, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, April 18.

Values

  • Autonomy
  • Honesty
  • Benevolence
  • Integrity
  • Compassion
  • Responsibility
  • Courage
  • Trustworthiness
  • Courtesy
  • Truthfulness
slide5

Values

Others

  • The Character Education Partnership, Inc.
  • The Council for Global Education
  • Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
slide6

Values Education

Values education is an explicit attempt to teach about values and/or valuing.

  • Inculcation
  • Moral development
  • Analysis
  • Values clarification
  • Action learning
slide7

Inclucation

Values as socially or culturally accepted standards or rules of behavior

  • Social versus individualistic orientations
  • Certain values are universal and absolute
  • Major contributors
slide8

Kohlberg’s (1984) theory

Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Moral Development

  • Focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity
  • Hypothesizes six levels
slide10

Kohlberg’s (1984) theory

Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Moral Development

  • Focuses primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity
  • Hypothesizes six levels
  • Other values given less consideration
  • Based on work of Piaget, Erikson and others
  • Moral dilemmas
slide11

Gilligan’s (1982) theory

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moral Development

  • Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women
  • Relationships and the morality of care
slide13

Gilligan’s (1982) theory

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moral Development

  • Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women
  • Relationships and the morality of care
  • Equivocal empirical support
  • Qualitative analysis versus a priori classification system
slide14

Moral Development

More recent proponents of this view

  • Larry Nucci
  • Daniel Lapsley
  • Rheta DeVries
slide15

Analysis

Developed mainly by social science educators

  • Emphasizes rational thinking and reasoning
  • Students urged to provide verifiable facts about the correctness or value of the topics or issues
  • Major assumption--valuing is the cognitive process of determining and justifying facts and beliefs derived from those facts
slide16

Analysis

A variety of higher-order cognitive and intellectual operations are frequently used

1. Stating issues

2. Questioning and substantiating relevance

3. Applying analogous cases

4. Pointing out logical and empirical inconsistencies

5. Weighing counter arguments

6. Seeking and testing evidence

slide17

Analysis

A representative instructional model

1. Identify and clarify the value question

2. Assemble purported facts

3. Assess the truth of purported facts

4. Clarify the relevance of facts

5. Arrive at a tentative value decision

6. Test the value principle implied in the decision

slide18

Values Clarification

Arose primarily from humanistic psychology and the humanistic education movement

  • Gordon Allport
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Carl Rogers
  • Sidney Simon
  • Howard Kirschenbaum
slide19

Values Clarification

Central focus

  • Rational thinking
  • Emotional awareness
  • Examine personal behavior patterns
  • Clarify and actualize their values
slide20

Values Clarification

Relies on internal cognitive and affective decision making process

An individualistic rather than a social process

slide21

Values Clarification

Individual makes choices and decisions affected by the internal processes of willing, feeling, thinking, and intending

Assumed that as the individual develops, the making of choices will more often be based on conscious, self-determined thought and feeling

slide22

Values Clarification

Person is seen as an initiator of interaction with society and environment

The educator should assist the individual to develop his or her internal processes

slide23

Values Clarification

Methods used

  • Large- and small-group discussion
  • Individual and group work
  • Hypothetical, contrived, and real dilemmas
  • Rank orders and forced choices
  • Sensitivity and listening techniques
  • Songs and artwork
  • Games and simulations
  • Personal journals and interviews
  • Self-analysis worksheets
slide24

Guidelines of the values clarification approach (Simon et al., 1972)

Simon, S., Howe, L., & Kirschenbaum, H. (1972). Values clarification: A handbook of practical strategies for teachers and students. New York: Hart.

Values Clarification

  • Choosing from alternatives
  • Choosing freely
  • Prizing one's choice
  • Affirming one's choice
  • Acting upon one's choice
  • Acting repeatedly, over time
slide25

Action Learning

Derived from a perspective that it is important to move beyond thinking and feeling to acting

Related to the efforts of some social studies educators to emphasize community-based rather than classroom-based learning experiences

slide26

Action Learning

Advocates stress the need to provide specific opportunities for learners to act on their values

Place more emphasis on action-taking inside and outside the classroom

Service learning carries on the tradition of action learning

slide27

Action Learning

Values are seen in the interaction between the person and society

The process of self-actualization is viewed as being tempered by social factors and group pressures

slide28

A problem-solving/decision making model (Huitt, 1992):

Huitt, W. (1992). Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44.

Action Learning

  • Input Phase
  • Processing Phase
  • Output Phase
  • Review Phase
slide29

Action Learning

First two phases of Huitt's model are almost identical to the steps used in analysis

Skill practice in group organization and interpersonal relations and action projects

  • Similar to that of Kohlberg's "Just School" program
  • Major difference--does not start from a preconceived notion of moral development
slide30

Summary

Each of the approaches to values education has

  • view of human nature
  • purposes, processes and methods used in the approach
slide31

Inculcation

Purpose

Methods

Summary

  • Instill or internalize
  • Change the values of students to more nearly reflect certain desired values
  • Modeling
  • Positive and negative reinforcement
  • Manipulate alternatives
  • Games and simulations
  • Role playing
slide32

Moral Development

Purpose

Methods

Summary

  • Help students develop more complex moral reasoning patterns
  • Urge students to discuss the reasons for their value choices and positions
  • Moral dilemma episodes with small-group discussion
  • Relatively structured and argumentative without necessarily coming to a "right" answer
slide33

Analysis

Purpose

Methods

Summary

  • Structured rational discussion that demands application of reasons as well as evidence
  • Testing principles
  • Analyzing analogous cases
  • Research and debate
  • Help students use logical thinking and scientific investigation
  • Help students use rational, analytical processes
slide34

Values Clarification

Purpose

Methods

Summary

  • Help students become aware of and identify own values
  • Help students communicate openly and honestly
  • Use both rational thinking and emotional awareness
  • Role-playing games
  • Simulations
  • Contrived or real value-laden situations
  • In-depth self-analysis exercises
  • Sensitivity activities
  • Small group discussions
slide35

Action Learning

Purpose

Methods

Summary

  • Purposes listed for analysis and values clarification
  • Provide opportu-nities for personal and social action
  • Encourage students to view selves as interactive beings
  • Methods listed for analysis and values clarification
  • Projects within school and community practice
  • Skill practice in group organizing and interpersonal relations
slide36

Summary

Preferred method of values education depends as much (if not more) on view of human beings and desired outcomes as it does on research on effectiveness