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Beliefs and Values How they are Shaped. Hserv 482 # 17 2008. Agenda. Values in USA education ? business of the commercial media ? function of the media in a democratic society ? Shaping individualistic values in the USA Alex Carey's summary of the 20th century. BELIEFS , VALUES.

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agenda
Agenda
  • Values in USA
  • education?
  • business of the commercial media?
  • function of the media in a democratic society?
  • Shaping individualistic values in the USA
  • Alex Carey's summary of the 20th century
us beliefs values
US beliefs, values
  • We're NUMBER ONE, above reproach, moral authority
  • History: pilgrims escaping oppression
    • Did not want government to rule their lives
    • Pride in individualism, and ability to pull selves up by bootstraps
    • Took care of our own
  • Founding fathers:SMALL WEAK GOVERNMENT
    • Federalism (national, state and local gov'ts)
    • Legislative, Judicial and Executive
    • Vote limited to those with property
us beliefs values6
US beliefs, values
  • Non-proportional representation (unlike any parliamentary democracy)
    • Bicameral Congress (Senate has power)
  • Weak political parties
    • Individual candidates raise own funding, make own decisions, run own campaigns
    • Candidates communicate through media, not through party organs
  • 20th century deliberate weakening of gov't
    • 1920s progressive movement,attacking politically powerful and corporations
    • Constitution amendments for women's suffrage and direct election of senators
us beliefs values7
US beliefs, values
  • 20th century direct primary elections took power from hands of party leaders
    • Presidential nominating conventions became meaningless as candidates chosen in primaries
    • Campaigns became more candidate and less party-centered
    • Polyarchy:
  • Party doesn't vote together as in other countries
  • Public Policy: federal, state, local (cf Europe)
    • medical care
    • transportation utilities
    • welfare
    • early life
    • housing
us beliefs values8
US beliefs, values
  • Little gov't regulation, instead have day in court
  • Litigious 1990: 20 times # lawyers/cap as Japan, 10 times as Sweden, 3 times as Germany
    • Tort costs 2.3% of GDP in 1991 cf 1.2% for Germany, 0.9% France, Canada, Australia, 0.7% for Japan, 0.6% for UK
    • "There is hardly a political question in the US which does not sooner or later turn into a judicial one"

Tocqueville

us beliefs values9
US beliefs, values
  • Public Sector (federal, state, local) %GDP 1995 (including the military)

US 33%

UK 43%

Germany 50%

Denmark 61%

Sweden 66%

50% for all EU countries, and without US military gap would be even bigger

  • Tax Receipts 1995 % GDP

US 31, EU 45, UK 38, Sweden 58

us beliefs values10
US beliefs, values
  • Individualism, goals, advancement

NOT community goals or public advancement

  • Liberty (but 1/4 world's prisoners)
  • Equality of opportunity (not there, but belief is)

Poorer people are not able to compete

us beliefs why
US beliefs WHY?
  • Migrants seeking escape, economic advancement
  • Never had a democratic socialist movement
  • US states with own power to tax & spend resist national initiatives
  • Labor unions only interested in their own and not for ambitious welfare state as in Europe
  • Frontier "land of opportunity," could always go west
  • WWII disrupted US much less than Europe
slide15

Source: Analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data in Economic Policy Institute, The State of Working America 1994-95 (M.E. Sharpe: 1994) p. 37.

us income shares
US INCOME SHARES

Picketty & Saez +

Johnston Free lunch

slide19

Source: Congressional Budget Office, Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 to 2004, Table 1C, December 2006.

slide24
Beliefs, values in the USA?How are they shaped?HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM BELIEFS AND VALUES IN OTHER COUNTRIES?
slide25

Beliefs, values in the USA?How are they shaped?How are they different from beliefs and values in other countries?HOW MIGHT WE STUDY THIS?

values policies across countries
Values/Policies Across Countries
  • Values, policies, well-being of young children in Canada, Norway, US. Shelley Phipps
    • data from World Values Survey 1990
slide30

Beliefs in equality WB2005 World Development Report 2006 Fig 4.2

Ingelhart World Values Survey representative samples of 69 countries

slide31

Belief that Luck Determines Income and Welfare Spending

Source ALESINA Fighting Poverty in US & Europe 2004

slide32

Redistribution and the Belief that Poverty is Society's Fault

Source ALESINA Fighting Poverty in US & Europe 2004

slide33
Whoever tells the stories of a nation need not care who makes its laws.

Andrew Fletcher

Scotch Patriot

1653-1716

NATION BULDING

Reasons for nation state concept??

French invention of chair in 1490

individualistic values
Individualistic Values
  • Health synonymous with health care
    • Individuals, diseases
    • Individual response
    • Self-help culture
individualistic values38
Individualistic Values
  • Health synonymous with health care
    • Individuals, diseases
    • Individual response
    • Self-help culture
  • Sports and glorification of gladiators
    • Verification of logic of opportunity syllogism
culture of fear
CULTURE OF FEAR
  • "It is always simply a matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country."
  • Herman Goering
  • Hitler's propaganda chief said to Gustav Gilbert during an Easter recess in the Nuremberg Trials on April 18, 1946
culture of fear44
CULTURE OF FEAR
  • "The short answer to why Americans harbor so many misbegotten fears is that imminent power and money await those who tap into our moral insecurities and supply us with symbolic substitutes.
  • (Barry Glassner) The Culture of Fear pg xxviii
  • Oderint dum metuant:
  • let them hate so long as they fear (Roman maxim)
slide45

"The events of September 11, 2001, fundamentally changed the context for relations between the United States and other main centers of global power, and opened vast, new opportunities."http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nssall.html

our job is to give people not what they want but what we decide they ought to have

"Our job is to give people not what they want, but what we decide they ought to have."

Richard Salant,

former President of CBS News

hal becker media expert and management consultant the futures group in an interview in 1981

'I know the secret of making the average American believe anything I want him to. Just let me control television.... You put something on the television and it becomes reality. If the world outside the TV set contradicts the images, people start trying to change the world to make it like the TV set images.....'

Hal Becker, media 'expert' and management consultant, the Futures Group, in an interview in 1981

media in world war i
Media in World War I
  • Woodrow Wilson elected President in 1916 on platform “Peace without victory” since population extremely pacifistic and didn’t want to be involved in a European War, but Wilson administration was actually committed to war and had to do something about it
  • They established the Creel Commission, a government propaganda commission, which in 6 months turned the pacifist population into a hysterical warmongering population, which wanted to destroy everything German, tear the Germans limb from limb, go to war and save the world.
    • Edward Bernays Creel Commission member and founder of public relations industry
edward bernays propaganda 1928
Edward BernaysPropaganda 1928
  • The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. . . .
  • Clearly it is the intelligent minorities which need to make use of propaganda continuously and systematically. In the active proselytizing minorities in whom selfish interests and public interests coincide lie the progress and development of American democracy.
education
EDUCATION
  • Schools as an indoctrination system
    • Curriculums tolerated as long as perform institutional role
    • Today: Commercialism in schools
      • eg. vending machine contracts in Seattle schools, Channel 1
      • Derek Bok: former president of Harvard writes in 2003
        • Once confined to athletics (paying coaches $500,000, recruiting students only for athletic ability), now booming in medical schools and research labs
        • "commercialization threatens to change the character of the university in ways that limit its freedom, sap its effectiveness and lower its standing in society"
        • "Company officials regularly insist that information concerning the work they support be kept secret while the research is going on and for a long enough time thereafter to allow them to decide whether to file for a patent"
        • (Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education)
  • Courses, passing exams, imposing disciplinerather than fostering independent thinking
  • Encouragement to get credit ratings in middle school,
  • Medical Harm, population health in medical school, public health school
education54
EDUCATION
  • William E. Simon, Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford [and President of the conservative Olin Foundation].
  • "Why should businessmen be financing left-wing intellectuals and institutions which espouse the exact opposite of what they believe in?" he asks, referring to the fact that many corporations give grants to universities or institutions whose scholars may be critical of business.
  • Ann Crittenden, "Simon: Preaching the Word for Olin," New York Times, July16, 1978
example of function of education
Example of function of Education
  • I pledge Allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all.
example of function of education56
Example of function of Education
  • David Spritzler, a twelve-year-old student at Boston Latin School faced a disciplinary action in 1991 for refusal to recite Pledge of Allegiance which he considered "a hypocritical exhortation to patriotism" in that there is not "liberty and justice for all."
  • Teachers, as paid functionaries of the state, are expected to engage in a form of moral, social, political, and economic production designed to shape students in the image of the dominant society
slide57

"The business community needs peace to see economic growth. They need kids to be educated to be consumers and workers." Carol Bellamy director of UNICEF quoted in NYT September 3, 2000

slide58

"The business community…

need kids to be educated

to be consumers and

workers. The rule of law,

good governance

is important for creating an

environment that will

probably also be good for

investment"

Carol Bellamy

director of UNICEF

NYT 000903

NYT 050515

quiz on which do we spend more
QUIZON WHICH DO WE SPEND MORE
  • Advertising or K-12 Education?
  • Foreign Aid or Advertising?
  • Advertising or Iraq Invasion?
  • Toys or Advertising?
toy advertising for children
Toy Advertising for Children
  • $100 million in 1980
  • $2000 million in 2004

Advertising costs amount to 15-20% of revenue to manufacturer of toy

    • Promotional budget exceeds all other costs of developing toy and getting it to market

Toy industry: fast turnover, quick returns, big hits and constantly reinventing few items with staying power

1955: Mattel and Mickey Mouse Club, Disneyland

-By 1980s only practical barrier was how far kids push parents

-Film and toy tie-in industry: started with Star Wars 1977

"If I wasn't a filmmaker, I'd be a toy maker" George Lucas

Three Rs now FOUR R's

advertising for children
Advertising for Children
  • Advergaming
  • viral marketing
  • buzz marketing
  • orchestrated word of mouth
  • consumer generated marketing (best sales person is friend rather than an ad)
  • "slumber parties" for 8-13 year old girls" (GIA: Girls Intelligence Agency--"you and your 10 best buds hangin out all night with the hottest, yet-to-be-seen-in-stores, stuff for chicas like you"
advertising for children64
Advertising for Children
  • Which emotions to attack?
  • -hire child psychologists
  • -ads play on insecurities and need to fit in with peers "It's the fear of social failure. You have to have the latest. You don't want to feel like an outcast"
  • Sean Brierley Advertising Handbook
  • "Advertising at its best is making people feel that without the product you're a loser. Kids are very sensitive to that."
  • Nancy Shalek president Shalek Agency
the nag factor
The Nag Factor
  • "The child exerts a certain amount of pressure, the effectiveness of which depends on his (or her) ability to argue sensibly with an adult. The toy advertiser can help the child by providing him (or her) with arguments which will satisfy mother."
  • report to Mattel on how to sell Barbie to mothers (who hated the doll)
  • Dr. Ernest Dichter
  • pioneer of "motivational research" manipulation of deep psychological cravings as persuasion techniques.
never too young
Never too young
  • "I guess when I started they thought the youngest child you could advertise to and get a result was five; now they think it is somewhere between two and three"
  • Bob Moehl, advertiser
  • Targets- now birth to 3 years--hot demographic
  • - "if you own this child at an early age, you can own this child for years to come. Companies are saying, 'Hey, I want to own the kid younger and younger.'"
  • Mike Searles president of Kids R US
trends in child marketing
Trends in child marketing
  • Began with toys, candy, cereals
  • Today clothes, fast food, computers, cosmetics, cars and credit cards
  • By age 18 have strong brand awareness
  • Strong awareness of one particular brand is worth $100,000 extra sales over a person's lifetime
eu child marketing
EU child marketing
  • All EU states base regulations on TV commercials on Television without Frontiers Directive
  • Sweden: no advertising directed at children under age 12
  • Greece: commercials for toys banned until 10 pm
  • Belgium: no commercials on children's programs and not during 5 min. before or after