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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY TRAINING. Presented by: UM-Flint Environment,Health and Safety Department. Training Outline. What is a confined space? General overview of UM-Flint’s CSE program Evaluation/Control of Atmospheric Hazards Elimination/Control of Other Hazards Entry Procedures

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Confined space entry training


Presented by:

UM-Flint Environment,Health and Safety Department

Training outline
Training Outline

  • What is a confined space? General overview of UM-Flint’s CSE program

  • Evaluation/Control of Atmospheric Hazards

  • Elimination/Control of Other Hazards

  • Entry Procedures

    • (General, Hazardous & Hot Work entry permits)

  • Evacuation & Rescue

  • Discussion of CS Scenarios & related equip.

  • Working w/ Contractors

  • Video “Life & Death Series CSE”

Training goal
Training Goal

  • Refresh and update employees knowledge of CSE procedures

  • Discuss roles/responsibilities

  • Familiarize new employees with the UMF confined spaces, associated hazards and entry procedures.

  • Provide employees with guidelines to:

    • Identify confined spaces

    • Evaluate confined spaces

    • Enter confined spaces in accordance with MIOSHA regulations and UM guidelines.

  • Discuss concerns or non-routine entries.

Confined space entry program
Confined Space Entry Program

  • Prevent Unauthorized Entry

  • Identify Permit Space Hazards

  • Develop & Follow Safe Entry Procedures (use entry permit as guide)

  • Conclude Entry (close out permit)

  • Coordinate Entry Operations between University departments as well as with non-University agencies i.e. FFD, MPC

  • Program Evaluation & Review/Revise

Section 1 what is a confined space
Section 1:What is a Confined Space?

  • A space that meets ALL THREE of the following criteria:

    • Has limited means of entry or exit.

    • Is large enough for a person to enter and perform work.

    • Is not designed for continuous human occupancy.

  • Employer must evaluate a space based on the Definition…. NOT on whether or not you may enter the space (per MIOSHA)

Types of confined spaces
Types of Confined Spaces

  • Non-permit required

  • Permit required

    • General permit … c(5) or c(7) entry

    • Hazardous permit

    • Hot Work

Non permit required
Non-Permit Required

  • Meets confined space definition, and

  • Has adequate ventilation, and

  • Does not contain any hazards that can cause death or harm, and

  • There is absolutely no potential for a hazardous atmosphere.

Permit required
Permit Required

  • Meets confined space definition and

    • limited means of entry or exit.

    • large enough for a person to enter and work.

    • Is not designed for continuous occupancy.

  • Has inadequate ventilation, or

  • Has a hazardous health or safety condition, or

    • (i.e. engulfment; internal configuration that could trap/asphyxiate; converging wall, sloped/taper floor; entrapment; exposed electrical/mechanical parts, etc.)

  • Has a known or potential hazardous atmosphere.

Confined space evaluation
Confined Space Evaluation

  • Is it a confined space?

  • Is it a permit required confined space?

  • What hazards are present? Source?

  • Can hazards be eliminated? Controlled?

  • What type of permit is required?

  • What procedures/equipment will be used to protect the entrants?

  • Use UM-f Space Evaluation form…

Types of permits
Types of Permits

  • General Entry Permit

  • Hazardous Entry Permit

  • Hot Work Entry Permit

Campus utility tunnels
Campus Utility Tunnels

  • UMF utility tunnels are not considered confined spaces because:

    • Ventilated and lighted

    • Designed for human occupancy

    • Not generally hazardous

  • However, caution must be taken when performing work in tunnels

    • Buddy system, radio communications/notifications, other regulations do apply… could be upgraded.

  • AA-OSEH is developing a new Tunnel Safety Program… many of AA’s tunnels are CS.

Section 2 atmospheric hazards
Section 2:Atmospheric Hazards

  • How Chemicals Enter Body

  • Acute and Chronic Effects

  • Exposure Limits

  • Identifying Atmospheric Hazards


  • Vapor Density

Routes of entry
Routes of Entry

  • Skin Absorption

  • Inhalation

  • Ingestion

  • Injection

Health effects
Health Effects

  • Acute

    • immediate or short term effect

  • Chronic

    • delayed or long term effect

Warning signs
Warning Signs

  • Dizziness/Disorientation

  • Weakness in knees/abnormal breathing

  • Blurred vision/profuse sweating

  • Chest pains/headaches

  • Loss of coordination/ringing in ears

  • Skin irritation/irregular heartbeat

  • Lethargy or excitedness

What is an atmospheric hazard
What is an Atmospheric Hazard?

  • Oxygen >23.5% or <19.5%

  • Flammables at >10% LEL


  • IDLH

  • Combustible Dusts

  • Unknown chemical spill

Sources of hazardous atmospheres
Sources of Hazardous Atmospheres

  • Spaces with known hazardous chemicals/substances

  • Spaces that lack ventilation

  • Spaces that have the potential to transfer a hazardous atmosphere

  • Spaces with a work induced hazardous atmosphere

Permissible exposure limits
Permissible Exposure Limits

  • OSHA

  • 8 Hour TWA

  • STEL

  • Ceiling Limit

  • Contact EHS for monitoring of contaminants not monitored for by standard meters

Oxygen deficient atmosphere
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere

  • <19.5%

  • Sources: work induced, rusting, gases that displace oxygen

  • Simple Asphyxiants: Displace oxygen (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon)

  • Chemical Asphyxiant: Prevent body from using oxygen (carbon monoxide)

Oxygen enriched atmosphere
Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere

  • 23.0% or Greater

  • Sources: Welding, or oxygen gas lines

  • Increase fire and explosion hazard

  • Never use oxygen to ventilate space

Vapors and gases
Vapors and Gases

  • Vapor: Gaseous state of material normally found as liquid or solid at normal temperature and pressure

  • Gas: Material that is found as a formless fluid at normal temperature and pressure

Lel lfl and uel ufl

  • LEL: Lowest concentration can ignite

  • UEL: Highest Concentration can ignite

  • Example: Gasoline LEL 1%, UEL 8%

  • In between is explosive

  • Consideration: Atmosphere above the UEL, when ventilated may create an explosive atmosphere

Lel safety factor
LEL Safety Factor

  • OSHA: 10% of LEL or Greater

  • Example: LEL for Methane is 5%

  • Meter alarm at 10% of 5% (i.e., 0.5%)

  • If exceeded (meter alarms), leave the space and Contact supervisor and EHS.

Combustible dusts
Combustible Dusts

  • Metal Powders - Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc

  • Wood Products - Dust, Paper

  • Rubber/Plastic/Spices/Food Products

  • Rule of Thumb - Obscure Vision 5 Feet or Less –high potential for combustion given the right conditions.

Toxic or poisonous atmospheres
Toxic or Poisonous Atmospheres

  • Most Common:

    • Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

    • Methane (CH4)

    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Carbon monoxide co
Carbon Monoxide (CO)

  • Colorless, odorless & tasteless

  • Product incomplete combustion

  • Causes chemical asphyxiation

  • Slightly lighter than air


Hydrogen sulfide h 2 s
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

  • Rotten egg odor

  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay

  • Found in sewers or petroleum holding tanks

  • <10 PPM

Methane ch 4
Methane (CH4)

  • Colorless, odorless & flammable

  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay

  • Lighter than air

  • Meter alarms – 10% of LEL

Carbon dioxide co 2
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

  • Colorless, odorless & tasteless

  • Byproduct of respiration and complete combustion

  • Heavier than air

Other atmospheric hazards
Other Atmospheric Hazards

  • Materials in the space

  • Work induced hazards (e.g., welding, painting, solvents)

  • Review history of space

  • Contact EHS if other contaminants are suspected

Vapor density
Vapor Density

  • Heavier than Air: Sinks

  • Lighter than Air: Rises

  • Air Vapor density = 1

  • <1 Lighter, >1 Heavier

  • Most contaminants are heavier than air

  • The few that are lighter, are usually flammable and very toxic

Section 3 evaluation control of atmospheric hazards
Section 3:Evaluation & Control of Atmospheric Hazards

  • Air Monitoring Equipment and Procedures

  • Ventilating, Flushing or Purging

  • PPE – only after engineer controls

Air monitoring
Air Monitoring

  • Contaminants may not be detected by sight or smell

  • Two Types of Direct Reading:

    • Electronic – Bacharach 4-gas monitor

    • Detector Tubes – Drager pump

  • Always monitor for oxygen, LEL and expected toxics (CO, H2S)

Bacharach sentinel 44
BACHARACH Sentinel 44

  • UM-F’s Four Gas Monitor - Sentinel 44

  • % Oxygen, % LEL, Carbon Monoxide (PPM), H2S (PPM)

  • Alarms:

    • O2 - <19.5% or > 23.0%,

    • LEL - > 10%,

    • CO - >35 ppm

    • H2S - >10 ppm

Air monitoring precautions
Air Monitoring Precautions

  • Alarm Goes Off – leave the space, contact EHS and supervisor

  • Other contaminants known or suspected, contact EHS for monitoring assistance

Air monitoring procedure
Air Monitoring Procedure

  • Ensure monitor has been calibrated

  • Turn monitor on and let warm up

  • Verify monitor is functioning properly

  • Zero sensors in clean ambient air-outside the CS

  • Keep sensor heads exposed

  • Test space before opening the hatch

  • Monitor for oxygen first…

Air monitoring continued
Air Monitoring (continued)

  • Monitor every four feet

  • Monitor vertically & horizontally

  • Record results on permit

  • Before work, periodically during work, and after breaks

  • Continuously monitor – confidence tone or ”beep”

Air monitoring limitations
Air Monitoring Limitations

  • Sensors must be calibrated and replaced periodically – Contact EHS

  • LEL sensor needs oxygen to work

  • LEL sensor is calibrated for one gas -Methane

  • Sensors can take up to 2 minutes to accurately display concentrations

  • Some gases and RF emissions interfere with sensor accuracy

Flushing purging of space
Flushing/Purging of Space

  • Lock Out/Tag Out Feeds

  • Can use air, steam, water, etc.

  • Removes chemical or decomposition hazards

  • Drain or pump out

  • Ventilate with fresh air when complete


  • Natural

  • Mechanical (General or Local)

    • portable/intrinsically safe

  • Air monitoring determines adequate ventilation

General ventilating technique
General Ventilating Technique

  • Perform air monitoring

  • Extend duct into space

  • Open all access points

  • Keep duct as short/straight as possible

  • Ensure intake is at clean air source

  • Ventilate 15 minutes prior to entry

  • Continue air monitoring

Local exhaust ventilation
Local Exhaust Ventilation

  • Work induced contaminants

  • Space has acceptable atmosphere prior to work

  • Place duct opening at point of generation (air is pulled out of space)

Ventilating safety measures
Ventilating Safety Measures

  • Ventilate with fresh air

  • Never use pure oxygen

  • Use explosion proof equipment if needed

  • Make sure exhaust air is not re-entrained

  • Make sure supply air is reaching all areas of the space

  • Use air monitoring to determine adequate ventilation

  • Don't block exit with equipment

Section 4 recognition control of other hazards
Section 4: Recognition & Control of Other Hazards

  • Engulfment, Entrapment, Configuration

  • Other Hazards and their Control


  • Liquid or Solid

  • Suffocation or Drowning


  • Elimination or Isolation of hazard

  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as the Miller tripod w/ harness and or wristlet/anklets)

Entrapment configuration

  • Inwardly converging walls

  • Floor which slopes downward and tapers to a small cross section

  • Obstacles, blockages or small internal openings


  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as the Miller tripod w/ harness and or wristlet/anklets)

Electrical mechanical hazards
Electrical & Mechanical Hazards

  • Use Lock-out/Tag-out Procedures prior to entry

  • Isolate moving parts

  • Assure equipment grounding / GFCI’s

Chemical hazards
Chemical Hazards

  • Toxics, Flammables, Irritants, Sensitizers, etc.


  • Read MSDSs

  • Understand Physical/Health hazards

  • Remove/ Isolate the source, ventilation

  • Wear appropriate PPE

Confined space entry training

  • Gloves

  • Glasses/goggles/face shields

  • Coveralls or Tyvek suits

  • Safety Shoes

  • Hard hats

  • Respirators


  • Select based on hazard

  • Latex - general protection

  • Nitrile/neoprene - chemical resistant

  • Kevlar - cut/puncture resistant


  • Air Purifying Half or full mask.

  • Filters and cartridges are for specific atmospheric hazards.

  • Not for IDLH or oxygen deficient atmospheres.

  • SCBA for IDLH conditions and not permitted for UMF employees’

    • Escape packs not used for re-entry

  • Respiratory Protection Program & Medical Monitoring is required.

Heat stress cold stress
Heat Stress & Cold Stress


  • Frost Bite

  • Hypothermia


  • Dehydration

  • Heat Rash

  • Heat Fatigue

  • Heat Cramps

  • Heat Exhaustion

  • Heat Stroke


  • Mechanical Ventilation

  • Fans, Heaters, Air Conditioners


  • AL: 85 dBA

  • PEL: 90 dBA

  • Communication is difficult


  • Remove or isolate the source

  • Wear Hearing Protection

  • Other means of communication

Slips trips falls
Slips, Trips & Falls

  • Good housekeeping practices

  • Fall Protection

  • Tie off ladders

  • Hard hats & slip resistant soles

  • Lower/raise equipment by rope. Don't carry on ladders

  • Barriers around openings

Power tools and lighting
Power Tools and Lighting

  • Tools are grounded & insulated

  • Insulating blankets when arc welding on metal

  • Equipment grounding/GFCI’s

  • Provide adequate lighting. Grounding & spark hazards of portable lighting

  • Tools & lighting should be explosion proof when necessary

Section 5 entry procedures
Section 5: Entry Procedures

  • Employee roles

  • Proper procedures for general, hot work & hazardous entry permits

Employee roles
Employee Roles

  • Attendant (spotter)

  • Authorized Employee (entrant)

  • Entry Supervisor

  • Rescue Personnel

    • DPS & Flint Fire, or

    • Contract CSE Rescue team i.e. MPC

    • IDLH conditions require On site rescue team

  • EHS – On-site for Hazardous entry

Entry procedures
Entry Procedures

  • Evaluate the space/ Identify hazards

  • Pre-entry briefing

  • Inform DPS

  • Isolate/control hazards

  • Perform air monitoring

  • Complete, sign and post permit

  • Monitor entrants

  • Exit space and close out permit

  • Debriefing

  • Return completed/closed permit to EHS

Pre entry briefing
Pre-Entry Briefing

  • Use the Evaluation Form and Permit to walk through the evaluation process

  • Discuss with supervisor to consider previous entries and history of the space

  • Review of conditions, controls, procedures & contingencies

  • Determine whether or not on-site rescue team is required… contact EHS.

Pre entry checklist just before entry
Pre-Entry Checklist (just before entry)

  • Inform DPS & EHS

  • Atmospheric monitoring

  • Inspect and test equipment prior to use

  • Communication procedures

  • Rescue/emergency procedures

  • Review space use history

  • Verify training

  • Supervisor verify safe entry conditions, etc.

  • Sign & post permit

Non permit required confined space
Non-Permit Required Confined Space

  • Meets definition of confined space, but no health or safety hazard

  • Two employees (buddy system)

  • Means of communication

  • Can be re-classified to a permit required space for work induced hazards… i.e. use of chemicals/solvents, welding, etc.

  • Examples: ceiling spaces,

General permit required confined space
General Permit Required Confined Space

  • Meets definition of a confined space and has a potential or known health or safety hazard

  • Atmospheric hazard eliminated by ventilation

  • Two Authorized Employees (One Designated as Entry Supervisor)

General entry permits
General Entry Permits

  • Pre-entry Briefing

  • Communication

  • Continuous Air Monitoring/Ventilation

  • Trained (Authorized) Employees

  • Elimination of hazards

  • PPE

  • Off-site Rescue

Hot work entry permit
Hot Work Entry Permit

  • Welding, burning, cutting or torch work

  • Provisions same as in general permit

  • If contaminants cannot be controlled by ventilation & air monitoring: Retrieval System and On-site Rescue must be used

Hazardous entry permit
Hazardous Entry Permit

  • Cannot eliminate atmospheric hazard

  • Provisions of General Permit Plus:

    • EHS Representative On Site,

    • On-site Rescue and Retrieval System Mandatory

Section 6 evacuation rescue
Section 6:Evacuation & Rescue

  • When to Evacuate the Space

  • Rescue Procedures

When should the confined space be evacuated
When should the Confined Space be evacuated?

  • Hazardous atmosphere

    • Alarm on monitor

    • Overexposure symptoms of entrants

  • Unanticipated health or safety hazard

  • Damage to PPE or failure of controls

  • Attendant cannot perform duties

  • Permit expires


  • If Entrant Becomes Incapacitated

  • Three Types:

    • Remote (retrieval system)

    • Off-site (Contact DPS 911 & FFD)

    • On-site (MPC/ Contract on-site rescue team & DPS)

  • Under No Circumstances is Attendant/Spotter to enter the space

Spotter retrieval system on site rescue team mpc
Spotter, Retrieval System, & On-site Rescue Team (MPC)

  • First call DPS on the radio.

  • If injured due to causes not related to environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.

  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere, then use remote/on-site rescue, if possible.

Spotter retrieval system off site rescue personnel
Spotter, Retrieval System & Off-Site Rescue Personnel

  • Contact DPS on radio

  • If injury due to causes not related to the environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.

  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere - use retrieval equipment

  • If retrieval fails - Wait for Fire Dept.

  • If unsure - Wait for Fire Dept.

Spotter off site rescue
Spotter & Off-Site Rescue

  • Contact DPS on by radio

  • Wait for Fire Dept.

Section 7 miscellaneous
Section 7: Miscellaneous

  • Contractors

  • UMF Confined Space related documents

  • Future drills and exercises

Outside contractors
Outside Contractors

  • Inform the contractor of confined spaces

  • Identify spaces they may be entering, and respective hazards

  • Must have own Confined Space Entry Program and employee training current.

  • Coordinate with other workers. Each group entering space issues a separate permit. Work activities cannot conflict.

  • EHS is available to review contractor’s program.

Review umf cse documents
Review UMF CSE Documents

  • Evaluation form

  • Entry Permit

  • Contractor Notification

  • Revised List of UMF Confined Spaces

  • UMF/UMAA Confined Space program

  • MI Part 90 Confined Space Entry Regulations