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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

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  1. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY

  2. Confined Space Entry Construction Industry Standard 1926.21(b)(6) General Industry Standard 1910.146 Best Practices for all Industries

  3. Typical Confined Spaces • Boiler, Degreaser, Furnace • Pipeline, Pit, Pumping Station • Reaction or Process Vessel, Mills • Septic Tank, Sewage Digester • Silo, Storage Tank, Barges • Sewer, Utility Vault, Manhole • Trenches, Shafts, Caissons

  4. Hazards of Confined Spaces • Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres (<19.5%) • Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres (>23.0%) • Flammable Atmospheres (>10% LEL) • Toxic Atmospheres (>10-ppm H2S, >35-ppm CO) • Temperature Extremes • Engulfment Hazards • Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects • Sloping surfaces that might prevent escape

  5. Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level. 15 - 19% Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms. 12-14% Respiration increases. Poor judgment. 10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue. 8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea, Unconsciousness, Vomiting. 6-8% 8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes - 50% fatal in 4-5 minutes - possible recovery. 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death.

  6. Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres • Oxygen level above 23.0%. • Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. • Hair, clothing, materials, etc. • Oil soaked clothing and materials. • Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. • Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.

  7. Flammable Atmospheres • 2 Critical Factors: • Oxygen content in the air sufficient to allow burning • Presence of a flammable gas, vapor, or dust (visibility of 5’ or less) • Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion • A rapidly burning substance can actually result in an explosion when contained within a confined space • Typical Ignition Sources: • Sparking or electric tool • Welding / cutting operations • Smoking

  8. Toxic Atmospheres • Product stored in a confined space: • Gases released when cleaning • Materials absorbed into walls of confined space • Decomposition of materials in the confined space • Work performed in a confined space: • Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering • Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing • Sealing, bonding, melting • Areas adjacent to a confined space • Gases may follow contour of ground and seep into confined space

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide • Decomposition of materials / human waste. • Rotten egg odor at low concentrations • Possibly no warning at high concentrations Conc. (ppm) EffectTime 10 Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours 50 - 100 Mild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 Hour 200 - 300 Significant Irritation 1 Hour 500 -700 Unconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour >1000 Unconsciousness, Death Minutes

  10. Carbon Monoxide • Odorless, Colorless Gas • Combustion By-Product • Quickly collapse at high concentrations Conc. (ppm) EffectTime • 50 Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours • 200 Slight headache, discomfort 3 Hours • 600 Headache, discomfort 1 Hour • 1000-2000 Confusion, nausea, headache 2 Hours • 1000-2000 Tendency to stagger 1 1/2 Hours • 1000-2000 Slight heart palpitation 30 Min. • 2000-2500 Unconsciousness 30 Min.

  11. Temperature Extremes • Extremely hot or cold temperatures • Steam cleaning of confined spaces • Humidity factors • Extremely cold liquids • Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes • Personal protective equipment

  12. Engulfment Hazards • Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers (i.e., grain, sand, coal, etc.) • Crusting and bridging below a worker • Flooding of confined space • Water or sewage flow

  13. Other Hazards • Noise • Amplified due to acoustics within the space • Damaged hearing, affects communication • Slick / Wet Surfaces • Slips and falls • Increased chance of electric shock • Falling Objects • Topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects

  14. How to Identify Confined Spaces • Limited Openings for Entry and Exit • Unfavorable Natural Ventilation • Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy

  15. Limited Openings for Entry/Exit • Openings as small as 18-inches in diameter • Any part of the body crossing the plane of the opening is considered entry of the confined space • Difficult to enter with SCBA or other life-saving equipment • Difficult to remove downed worker in folded up or bent over position • Exit from large openings may be difficult due to presence of ladders, hoists, etc.

  16. Unfavorable Natural Ventilation • Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere • Deadly gases can be trapped inside • Organic materials can decompose • May not be enough oxygen due to presence of other gases or chemical reactions, such as rusting

  17. Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy • Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis • Designed to store a product • Enclose materials or processes • Transport products or substances • Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.

  18. Dangerous Combinations • Presence of all three confined space characteristics can complicate the situation. • Working in and around the confined space can increase hazards for entry personnel. • Rescue operations must be available during entry. • Worsened conditions due to work activities: • Welding and cutting, use of bonding agents • Cleaning with solvents, use of other chemicals • Use of gas-powered equipment

  19. * Space large enough to enter & * Limited or restricted entry or exit & * Not designed for continuous worker occupancy NO Not a confined space YES Permit- Required Confined Space Non- Permit Required Space Hazardous Atmosphere or Engulfment Hazard YES NO or Configuration Hazard or Any other recognized serious hazard Categorizing Work Space Confined space

  20. Three Types of Confined Spaces • Non-Permit Required Confined Space • No hazardous atmosphere • Permit Required Confined Space • Reclassified Permit Required Confined Space

  21. Non-Permit Entry • No hazards OR • Able to control airborne chemical contaminant concentrations using ventilation • Hazard source controlled/neutralized/removed • Written Supervisor approval required for re-entry after hazard correction

  22. Permit Required Confined Space • Permit Required Confined Space • PRCS – Permit Required Confined Space • Contains or has the POTENTIAL to contain a hazardous atmosphere • Contains material with the potential for engulfment (i.e., water, grain) • Internal configuration for trapping or asphyxiation • Contains any other recognized SERIOUSsafety/health hazard

  23. Confined Space Entry • Survey workplace for confined spaces • Inspect and test confined space to determine if permit or non-permit confined space • Isolate confined space from other employees and non-employees • Perform all activities according to written plan and permit

  24. Equipment Required • Testing And Monitoring • Multi-Gas Meter (Oxygen, Flammable Gas, Toxic Gases) • Ventilating • Fans • Communications • Radios • Cell Phones • Hand Signals • Lighting, Barriers, And Shields • Safe Ingress And Egress • Rescue And Emergency • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Respiratory Protection • Specific Equipment Needed

  25. Testing the Atmosphere • Verify presence of safe work atmosphere prior to entry, and periodically thereafter • Test all areas of a confined space • Top, Middle, Bottom • Methane is lighter than air • Carbon monoxide is heavier than air • Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air • Oxygen deficiency (<19.5%)

  26. Order of Testing • First - Oxygen Presence And Amounts • Second - Flammables • Third - Toxics • Fourth - Others

  27. Ventilation • Best solution to correct problems if the source of the problem cannot be removed • Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space • Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only • Continuous ventilation whenever possible • Retest the confined space before entry

  28. Isolation • Lock and tag out electrical sources • Blank and bleed pneumatic and hydraulic lines • Disconnect mechanical drives and shafts • Secure mechanical parts • Blank sewer and water flow • Lock and tag out shutoff valves

  29. Retrieval Equipment • Retrieval line and body harnessmustbe used, unless: • Use makes entry more hazardous -OR- • Use would not contribute to non-entry rescue • Retrieval lines must be secured/tied outside of the space

  30. Mechanical Lifting Devices • Stable anchor points • Existing overheads • Tripods, etc. • Must be used: • Vertical entries >5 feet deep • Attached to retrieval line/body harness

  31. Qualified PRCS Entry Team • Authorized Entrant • Persons trained and authorized by permit to enter confined spaces • Safety Attendant • Person stationed outside of the space. The “guardian angel.” • Entry Supervisor • Fills out PRCS permit • PRCS Permit - Formal written document which authorizes personnel to enter and perform a specific operation

  32. Emergency Rescue • Call 911 in the event of an emergency in a confined space that requires rescue services • Emergency rescue services are provided by local Fire Departments and associated agencies • OCC employees should not attempt to rescue if it requires entry of the confined space

  33. Summary All persons involved in Permit Required Confined Space Entry must be qualified: Supervisor Safety Attendants Entrants Rescue Team - Specialized training involved Confined spaces are dangerous places Know how to control or eliminate hazards