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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY. 29 CFR 1910.146. What Is a Confined Space?. A space that:. Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit; Is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily and perform work, but is not designed for continuous human occupancy;

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confined space entry


29 CFR 1910.146


What Is a Confined Space?

A space that:

  • Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit;
  • Is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily and perform work, but is not designed for continuous human occupancy;
  • Lacks natural ventilation;
  • May contain a hazardous Atmosphere;
  • Has the potential for engulfment;
  • Has a recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Examples ofConfined Spaces:

  • Tanks
  • Manholes
  • Boilers
  • Furnaces
  • Sewers
  • Silos
  • Hoppers
  • Vaults
  • Pipes
  • Trenches
  • Tunnels
  • Ducts
  • Bins
  • Pits

Confined Space Entry

  • Definitions:
  • ENTRANT - the person who enters a confined space.
  • ATTENDANT - the person who stays with the entrant outside the confined space, and is responsible for assisting the entrant in exiting the confined space, and calling for emergency assistance when required.
  • ENTRY SUPERVISOR - the qualified person who evaluates the hazards, prescribes required equipment and precautions and issues the Confined Space Entry Permit.


  • The act by which a person intentionally passes through an opening into a permit required confined space.
  • Any part of the body passing through the opening is considered entry.


  • Any condition which poses an immediate threat to the health of life on an entrant.
  • Would cause irreversible adverse health effects.
  • Would interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

Potential Hazards in Confined Spaces

  • Oxygen Deficiency
    • <19.5% or >23.5% oxygen concentration
  • Combustibles
    • Methane
    • Hydrogen
    • Acetylene
    • Propane
    • Gasoline fumes
  • Toxic Materials
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Hydrogen Sulfide
    • Welding fumes
    • Corrosives
  • Electricity
  • Mechanical Hazards
    • Mixers
    • Crushers

Identify The Space

  • Is the it a confined space?
  • Is the space permit or non-permit?

Permit-Required Confined Space

  • A Permit-Required Confined Space is confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
  • Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
  • Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant.
  • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could become trapped or asphyxiated.
  • Contains any other serious safety or health hazard.

Non-PermitConfined Space

  • A confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death of serious physical harm.

Six Steps To SafeConfined Space Entry

  • Identify the space
  • Permit the space
  • Isolate the space
  • Ventilate the space
  • Test the atmosphere
  • Equip the space

Permit The Space

  • Permit must be correctly and completely filled out prior to entry.
  • Permit must be activated by Entry Supervisor’s signature to be valid.
  • No entry is allowed without a valid permit.
  • Permits are valid for up to 12 hours.
  • When work is completed, permit and tailboard form should be returned to safety.
  • Cancelled permits must be kept on file for at least one year.

Isolate the Spacefrom all hazards

  • Close Valves
    • Double block & bleed, or
    • Blank flange
  • Empty the Space
    • Depressurize, vent & drain
  • Lockout/Tagout Equipment
    • Electrical sources
    • Rotating/reciprocating parts
    • Hazardous materials
  • Clean residue from the space


Many confined space entries involve a complex set of exposures to mechanical, electrical, pressure and chemical hazards.


Ventilate the Space

  • Use mechanical ventilation
    • Fans
    • Air horns
  • Ventilate at the rate of at least four (4) volumes per hour
    • Larger spaces require more ventilation
  • Make sure air supply is not contaminated
    • Ventilation air supply must be from fresh air uncontaminated with flammables, toxins, etc.

Fresh Air

If concentrations of materials are found to be at harmful levels, the confined space must be ventilated to remove them before entry.

Fresh outside air is blown into the space to dilute and remove contaminants, and supply oxygen.










Test the Atmosphere

In this order:

  • Check for Oxygen Content:
    • At least 19.5% and less than 23.5%
  • Check for Combustibles:
    • Less than 10% of the LEL
  • Check for Toxic Gasses:
    • Most commonly carbon monoxide (PEL <35 ppm)
    • or any other hazardous materials as determined by the use of the space.


  • Any time a limit is exceeded, no matter what the reason, all personnel shall immediately exit the space, and no others shall enter until atmospheric conditions are returned to safe levels.



Atmosphere Testing Shall Be Performed:

  • Prior to every entry when the space is vacant;
  • After a 10 minute ventilation period (if ventilation is necessary);
  • At least hourly for permit-required confined spaces.
  • More frequently, if conditions or suspicions warrant.

Always test the air at various levels to be sure that the

entire space is safe.

Good Air

Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom!

Poor Air

Deadly Air





Manholes may also accumulate highly flammable gasses such as methane and ethane. Unlike the gas we receive at home, we cannot detect some of these gases with our sense of smell.

Manholes often remain covered for long periods of time. Naturally occurring toxins, such as hydrogen sulfide can accumulate inside of manholes.


Equip The Space

  • Permits should list all equipment and tools necessary for Entry and Rescue
  • Harnesses
  • Retrieval lines
  • Chemical protective clothing
  • Welding apron/sleeves
  • Respirators
  • Gloves
  • Safety glasses

Vertical Entry

  • A means must be provided for both safe normal entry or exit , and emergency extrication.
  • Tripods with hoist, lifeline, & full body harness are used for emergency extrication.
  • Ladders may be used for ordinary entry & exit.

Conduct aTailgate Briefing

  • Entire crew must attend
    • Attendants, entrants, entry supervisor
  • Review hazards of entry and work
  • Review PPE
  • Review procedure for contacting rescue
    • verify rescue available

Enter the Space and Proceed with work:

  • An attendant shall be posted near the entrance for the duration of the work. He shall be in constant communication with the entrants while the job is in progress.
  • All entrants shall sign the sign in log when entering the space and sign out when exiting.
  • The attendant shall maintain the permit and sign in log for the duration of the work.

Confined Space Entry

Means of emergency rescue must be readily available to the confined space entry attendant for emergency extrication of entrants.


When the Job is Done:

  • Remove all personnel, tools, and debris from the space. Sign off the log.
  • Close the space.
  • Cancel the permit.
  • Review the job with the host employer (hazards, problems, other employers, etc.)

Non-Permit Confined Space Entry

  • Isolate the space
  • Ventilate the space
  • Evaluate the space
    • Test atmosphere
    • Assure justification conditions are met
  • Conduct tailboard
  • Enter the space
attendant duties
Attendant Duties
  • To monitor entrants during the job and during entry & exit to help insure their safety.
    • The attendant may not abandon his post for any reason while personnel are in the space unless relieved by another qualified attendant.
  • To monitor atmospheric conditions in the space prior to and during entry.
  • To control access to the confined space.
  • To summon emergency assistance as needed.
  • To assess hazards in and around the space, and take action on the same.
  • To keep records of confined space work, such as air test results, personnel entry/exit, etc.


  • The attendant should attempt to remove the entrant from the confined space using tripods, hoist, and lifelines.
  • Attendants are Not To Enter Confined Spaces. Lethal hazards may be present within the confined space.
  • Only properly equipped and trained emergency rescue personnel may enter confined spaces to make rescues.
entrant duties
Entrant Duties
  • To assure that the space has been adequately ventilated, isolated, emptied, or otherwise made safe for entry.
  • To immediately exit a space, without question, upon word of the attendant, no matter what the reason.
  • To follow all safety rules and procedures that apply to the job.
  • To be familiar with the work to be performed and the procedures that apply to the job.
  • To use the appropriate PPE whenever necessary.
supervisor duties
Supervisor Duties
  • To assure adequate protection is provided to the entrants by verifying adequate lockout/tagout and that all hazards are securely isolated.
  • To support the attendant’s authority in controlling access to a confined space.
  • To verify that all personnel have exited prior to closing the space.
  • To assure that all personnel involved are aware of the hazards associated with the space.
  • To assure that rescue services are available prior to entry.



Confined Space

Safe Work Permit Required

Confined spaces are required to be labeled. Some spaces may have been overlooked. Contact your safety representative when in doubt. It is up to you to obey signs and to follow permit procedures before entry.