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The Person and Work of Christ

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  1. The Person and Work of Christ Systematic Theology © John Stevenson, 2012

  2. Title Titles for Jesus Synoptic Gospels Gospel of John Acts Paul’s Epistles Son of Man 72 13 7 0 Son of God 14 30 2 4 Messiah 0 2 0 0 Christ 37 21 107 243

  3. Daniel 7:13 I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, And He came up to the Ancient of Days And was presented before Him.

  4. Daniel 7:14 And to Him was given dominion, Glory and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations and men of every language Might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion Which will not pass away; And His kingdom is one Which will not be destroyed.

  5. Messiah Christ

  6. Matthew The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham (1:1) Mark The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God (1:1). Luke For today in the city of David there has been born for you a Savior, who is Christ the Lord (2:11) John For the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ (1:17)

  7. John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being.

  8. John 1:14 And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.

  9. Malachi 3:1 “Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming,” says the LORD of hosts.

  10. John 1:18 No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.

  11. How did God take on flesh?

  12. Philippians 2:5-7 Have this attitude in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, 6 who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men.

  13. “He emptied Himself” • Kenotic View: Emptied Himself of His relative attributes (omniscience, omni-presence, omnipotence). • Lutheran View: Divine attributes communicated themselves to the human attributes. • Divine attributes joined with human nature as one person without conversion, composition, or confusion.

  14. Why the Incarnation? • To communicate God to man. No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him. (John 1:18).

  15. Why the Incarnation? • To communicate God to man. • To taste death for every man. …was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone. (Hebrews 2:9).

  16. Date Human Nature Divine Nature Reference Party Docetic 60 Deny Affirm 1 John 4:1-3 By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God; 3 and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God; this is the spirit of the antichrist, of which you have heard that it is coming, and now it is already in the world. (1 John 4:2-3).

  17. Date Human Nature Divine Nature Reference Party Docetic 60 Deny Affirm 1 John 4:1-3 Ebionite 120 Affirm Deny Irenaeus Arian 325 Affirm Reduce Nicea Apollinarian 381 Reduce Affirm Constantinople Nestorian 431 Held that Christ was two persons Ephesus Eutychian 451 Part man, part God Chalcedon & Constantinople Orthodox 33 Fully human and fully divine Affirmed throughout

  18. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial

  19. Nature of the Atonement He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He did not open His mouth; Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, And like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, So He did not open His mouth (Isaiah 53:7). • Sacrificial

  20. Nature of the Atonement ...For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed (1 Corinthians 5:7b). • Sacrificial

  21. Nature of the Atonement ...Christ also loved you, and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma (Ephesians 5:2b). • Sacrificial

  22. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • A once and for all sacrifice By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all (Hebrews 10:10).

  23. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • A once and for all sacrifice And every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; 12 but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, sat down at the right hand of God (Hebrews 10:11-12).

  24. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious

  25. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious (a legal representative) Adam Jesus

  26. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious (a legal representative) So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men (Romans 5:18).

  27. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious (a legal representative) For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous. (Romans 5:19).

  28. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him. (Isaiah 53:6).

  29. Nature of the Atonement And when you were dead in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions… (Colossians 2:13). • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary

  30. Nature of the Atonement …having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us and which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross (Colossians 2:14). • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary

  31. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us-- for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree” (Galatians 3:13).

  32. Nature of the Atonement Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people (Hebrews 2:17). • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory

  33. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory

  34. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Propitiation presupposes anger

  35. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Propitiation presupposes anger • The price of propitiation was death …Christ Jesus; 25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith (Romans 3:24-25).

  36. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Propitiation presupposes anger • The price of propitiation was death • The initiation of propitiation was love In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins (1 John 4:10).

  37. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory

  38. Propitiation Expiation To appease or satisfy wrath To erase or remove guilt Directed toward the anger of God Directed toward the guilt of man The sacrifice in the temple appeased the just demands of a righteous God… …by covering the guilt of the sins committed

  39. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory As far as the east is from the west, So far has He removed our transgressions from us (Psalm 103:12).

  40. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory • Redemptive

  41. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial – Presupposes inadequacy of animal sacrifices • Vicarious – Presupposes man’s sin • Substitutionary – Presupposes man’s inability to save himself • Penal – Presupposes a penalty • Propitiatory – Presupposes anger • Expiatory – Presupposes guilt • Redemptive – Presupposes slavery

  42. Slavery in the Ancient World

  43. The Kinsman Redeemer • He must be a Kinsman • He must be Free Himself • He must be Able to Pay the Ransom Price • He must be Willing to Pay the Price

  44. The Kinsman Redeemer • Jesus was our Kinsman Since then the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil; 15 and might deliver those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. (Hebrews 2:14-15).

  45. The Kinsman Redeemer • Jesus was our Kinsman • Jesus was Free Himself For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin (Hebrews 4:15).

  46. The Kinsman Redeemer • Jesus was our Kinsman • Jesus was Free Himself • Jesus was Able to Pay the Ransom Price • Jesus was Willing to Pay the Price

  47. Have this attitude in yourselves whichwas also in Christ Jesus, 6 who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bondservant, and being made in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. (Philippians 2:5-8).

  48. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory • Redemptive • Triumphant ...The Son of God appeared for this purpose, that He might destroy the works of the devil. (1 John 3:8b).

  49. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory • Redemptive • Triumphant Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world shall be cast out (John 12:31).

  50. Nature of the Atonement • Sacrificial • Vicarious • Substitutionary • Penal • Propitiatory • Expiatory • Redemptive • Triumphant But thanks be to God, who always leads us in His triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of the knowledge of Him in every place. (2 Corinthians 2:14).