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Unit: Education. Aim: How can we identify both the latent and manifest functions of education in the United States?. Do Now: Describe some aspects of education that you enjoy, and some that you do not - why?.

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Unit: Education


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slide1

Unit: Education

Aim: How can we identify both the latent and manifest

functions of education in the United States?

Do Now: Describe some aspects of

education that you enjoy, and some

that you do not - why?

slide2

What do you see the purpose of mandatory education to be? In other words, why are American students forced into schools until at least the age of 16 (with some exceptions)?

slide3
Functionalists – What purpose does formal school have for society?

Conflict Theorists: schools reproduce the social inequalities of a society

Interactionists: study education on a micro-level, how teacher/student interaction shapes how students perform in school

Sociological Perspectives on Education

slide4
Manifest Functions include:

Transmission of content knowledge and academic skills

Latent functions (sometimes called the ‘hidden curriculum”) include:

transmission of dominant cultural values

Socialization and social integration of students into larger society

Replacing family functions

Manifest vs. Latent (hidden) Functions

what values are being taught here
What values are being taught here?

Why would a school want to instill values such as this in students?

what values are being taught here1
What values are being taught here?

Why would a school want to instill these values in students?

slide7

Changing cultural values?

The Pledge has been modified four times since its composition, with the most recent change adding the words "under God" in 1954.

slide9

What interest do

schools have in

enforcing a dress

code (or uniforms)

i obedience to authority
I. Obedience to Authority:

Students are taught to obey rules without question

Students are punished for disobeying rules

What is your opinion of Sewanhaka’s system of rules/punishments? Which are good/bad? Why?

ii gender stereotypes
II. Gender Stereotypes

Career advice still gendered for boys and girls. Some subjects, activities, programs, or sports are seen as “male” or “female”

Can you think of examples?

iii acceptance of inequality
III. Acceptance of Inequality

Conflict theorist sociologists view education as a mechanism for maintaining social inequalities and reproducing the class system.

Sets students apart by perceived ability (A.P., Regents, Honors)

Encourages the idea that some people are inherently better than others. Prepares students for acceptance of societal inequalities.

What are some differences

between ‘rich’ and ‘poor’

Schools?

slide14

Weaver Indian School

Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Alabama schools were segregated into white, black, and Indian institutions. The Weaver Indian School at Mount Vernon, northeastern Mobile County, was an Indian-only school.

slide16

A Tale of Two Schools

(New York Times - 2014)

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/05/04/magazine/tale-of-two-schools.html

unequal funding
Unequal Funding:

Public schools supported by property taxes, so richer communities have more to spend on students/schools

Richer areas can offer higher salaries and recruit the best teachers and buy better equipment (computers, books, etc.)

Because of this, students from richer areas are better equipped for success after school than poor students.

slide18

Credentialism and Status

Tracking: the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups based on test scores or perceived abilities

Credentialism refers to the

increase in the minimum

amount of education

needed to enter a field

Conflict theories believe that

this reinforces inequalities,

as poorer people cannot

afford to earn higher degrees

academic tracking
Academic Tracking

Students attend academic classes only with students whose overall academic achievement is the same as their own.

Advanced tracks study higher mathematics, more foreign languages, and literature.

Students in less academic tracks acquire vocational skills such as welding or cosmetology, or business skills, such as typing or bookkeeping.

Students are usually not offered the opportunity to take classes deemed more appropriate for another track, even if the student has a demonstrated interest and ability in the subject. Has anyone had this experience?

tracking discussion questions
Tracking Discussion Questions:

What are the benefits/disadvantages of having students of similar abilities in the same class, as opposed to having students of different abilities in the same class?

Does tracking accurately separate students of differing abilities, or does it actually serve to create differences in abilities?

Should there be a separation between A.P./Regents level courses? Why or why not?

Should there be trade programs in school ( Cosmo, Auto, Culinary, etc)?

Should the military recruit in schools?

harlem children s zone part 1
Harlem Children’s Zone part 1:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Di0-xN6xc_w

interactionist perspective
Interactionist Perspective

Describe the ways in which a teacher treats you

(either good, bad, or indifferent) impacts

how you do in school (if at all).

Study classroom interaction. They study how teacher expectations cause a self-fulfilling prophecy, producing the very behavior that the teacher is expecting.

slide25

Two Famous Case Studies of

Interactionst Approach

Rosethal/Jacobson

(1968)

Ray Rist

(1970)

ray rist experiment 1970
Ray Rist Experiment (1970)

In a kindergarten classroom where both students and teacher were African American, the teacher assigned students to tables based on ability; the “better” students sat at a table closer to her, the “average” students sat at the next table, and the “weakest” students sat at the farthest table.

Monitoring the students through the year, Rist found that the students closer to the teacher received the most attention and performed better. The farther from the teacher a student sat, the weaker that student performed.

Rist continued the study through the next several years and found that the labels assigned to the students on the eighth day of kindergarten followed them throughout their schooling.

slide27

Teacher

Table 1: Mrs. Caplow assigned those she considered to be ‘fast learners’ They sat closest to her in the front - came from better social classes

Table 2: ‘Average students’ sat in between tables 1 & 3

Table 3: ‘Poor Students’ - lower social classes, less expectations, sat in the back of the room.

Rist continued the study through the next several years and found that the labels assigned to the students on the eighth day of kindergarten followed them throughout their schooling.

the rosenthal jacobson experiment teacher expectation
The Rosenthal/Jacobson Experiment: Teacher Expectation

Predicted that, when given the information that certain students had higher IQ’s than others, elementary school teachers may unconsciously behave in ways that facilitate and encourage (or discourage) the students' success

Those labeled as ‘spurters’ made more progress because teachers expected them to, and encouraged them more