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A phrase is a group of words A phrase itself will not have a subject and a verb. Within a phrase, there may be a subordinate clause , but that clause will be functioning as a noun, adjective or adverb in that phrase. A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb

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clauses vs phrases what s the difference
A phrase is a group of words

A phrase itself will not have a subject and a verb.

Within a phrase, there may be a subordinate clause , but that clause will be functioning as a noun, adjective or adverb in that phrase

A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb

Two categories of clauses

Independent

Subordinate/Dependent or Fragment

We’ll talk about clauses later. Phrases are first.

Clauses vs. phrases…what's the difference?
restrictive clauses
RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES
  • A restrictive clause contains information which is necessary for the sentence to deliver the meaning intended. There should be no commas before and after the clause.
examples of restrictive clauses
Examples of restrictive clauses
  • The government supports people who are sixty years old and above through the senior citizens’ discount.
  • Some senior citizens who are aware of this program appreciate what the government is doing for them.
  • The legislator who authored this law needs to be commended.
nonrestrictive clauses
NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES
  • These are clauses that are not really necessary in the sentence. They just give additional information. Commas are used to set off these nonessential elements.
examples of nonrestrictive clauses
EXAMPLES OF NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES
  • My pet dog, which is a poodle, got lost.
  • The poodle , which is named Chiquitita, is almost two years old.
  • Her caretaker, who is responsible for her, is heart broken.
  • The family, who loves this pet dog, is also very unhappy over her disappearance.
appositive phrases
Appositive Phrases
  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed near another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. An appositive phrase includes with the appositive all of the words or phrases that modify it.

My uncle, a mediocre chef, is no Julia Childs, since he often drops his cigar ashes into the food he is preparing.

My favorite pastime, cow tipping, often results in dirty shoes.

participial phrases
Participial Phrases
  • A participial phrase functions as an adjective and can take four forms: present, past, perfect and passive perfect. It consists of the participle, its modifiers and complements.

Present:

Competing in the race, the athlete felt a surge of adrenaline.

Past:

Bothered by her husband’s snoring, the woman kicked the poor man.

Perfect:

Having typed the paper, the student was finally able to relax.

Passive Perfect:

The police officer, having been threatened by the suspect, called for assistance.

participial phrases1
Participial Phrases
  • Some participles are formed from irregular verbs. Be aware that they will look different in the past form.

Past form of irregular verb:

Swept away by the storm, the building’s roof was severely destroyed.

The old toy, forgotten in a corner, was destined for the garage sale box.