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Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe

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  1. Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe Renate Soellner & Astrid-Britta Bräker University of Hildesheim • AAA-Prevent • AlcoholAbuseamongAdolescents in Europe • Effective Environmental StrategiesforPrevention

  2. Agenda

  3. Project AAA-prevent • Based on: International Self-Report Study ofDelinquency(ISRD-2; 2006-2010) • N = 67.883, 30 countries, 7. – 9. Klasse (11 – 18 yearolds) • delinquency, leisure time, drugandalcoholuse, family, neighbourhood etc. • AlcoholAbuseamongAdolescents in Europe. Effective environmental strategiesforprevention • N = 57.771 • 25 countries • 7. – 9. Klasse (12 – 16 yearolds ) Junger-Tas, Marshall, Enzmann, Killias, Steketee & Gruszczynska (2010) AAA-Prevent

  4. AdolescentAlcoholUse in Europe • European School Survey Project on Alcoholand Other Drugs (ESPAD): • 62% oftheadolescentsdrankduringthe last month • 39% havebeendrunkenduringthe last year • 43% usedat least 5 unitsofalcoholicbeverages (heavy episodicdrinking) • Hibell, Guttormsson, Ahlström, Balakireva, Bjarnason, Kokkevi & Kraus (2009) • HealthBehavior in School-AgedChildren (HBSC) • weeklyuse:11% ofthe 13 yearolds; 26% ofthe 15 yearolds • beingdrunkenat least twice: 11% ofthe13 yearolds; 33% ofthe15 yearolds • Currie, NicGabhainn, Godeau, Roberts, Smith, Currie, Picket, Richter, Morgan & Barnekow (2008) ESPAD(2007): 15-16 yearolds 35 countries HBSC (2005/2006): 11-15 yearolds 41 countries

  5. Prevalence


  6. Abstinence Rates • Notes: • lowestabstinencerates in Eastern European countries • High abstinencerates in Mediterranean countries, but also in Iceland, Bosnia-Herzegovina & Norway

  7. Prevalence last month(beer, wine, breezers; spirits) • Notes: • Lessthan 50% reportdrinkingalcohol last month • Same patternasregardslifetimeuse: Hungary, Estonia, Czech RepublicandDenmarkshowhigherusethan Portugal, IcelandandBosnia-Herzegovina

  8. Prevalence of drinking 5 times or more(last month) (beer/wine/breezers; spirits) • Notes: • Youngsters from Central European countries showfrequentuse (e.g. Switzerland, theNetherlands, Germany) • ItistheonlyupperpositionofSwitzerland in all rankings • Portugal, IcelandandBosnia-Herzegovinaarelowestagain

  9. Drunkenness due to beer, wine and breezers (lifetime users) Everbeendrunk? • Notes: • Estonia andDenmarkareleading • Youngsters from Southern and Western European countries havelessexperiencewithdrunkennessbut also Armenia, SloveniaandBosnia-Herzegovina

  10. Drunkenness due to spirits (lifetime users) Everbeendrunk? • Notes: • Nearly same rankingasregardstheuseofbeer/wine/ breezers • More youngstersreportedgettingdrunkenbyusingspiritsthanbybeer, wineorbreezers

  11. Prevalence of drinking 5 units or more last drinking occasion (beer/wine/breezers) • Notes: • Drinking high amountsofalcohol (5 alcoholicbeveragesandmore) ismorecommon in Central andsome Northern European countries • Spain isrankedbetween Northernand Eastern European countries (and not nexttotheMediterranean countries)

  12. Prevalence of drinking 5 units or more last drinking occasion (spirits) • Notes: • Drinking high amountsofspiritsislesscommonoverall • Similarrankingasregardstheuseofbeer/wine/breezers

  13. Patterns ofuse

  14. Cluster Analysis • Variables • Frequencyofuse last month (beer, wine, breezers) • Amountofunits last drinkingoccasion (beer, wine, breezers) • Frequencyofuse last month (spirits) • Amountofunits last drinkingoccasion(spirits) Data • 12 – 16 year-olds, 25 countries, withlifetimeexperienceofdrinkingalcohol

  15. K-meansclustering differences in level qualitative differences Cluster means

  16. Identificationofcountryclusters Can the countries becategorizedregardingtheprevalenceof alcoholconsumptionpatterns?

  17. Threecountryclusters HIGHEST PROPORTION OF INTENSE USE MAINLY MILD USE MAINLY NO USE

  18. Country clusters

  19. IndicatorsforRiskyuse

  20. Whatisriskydrinking? • Whichgoalspreventionprogramsaimat? • Howisriskydrinkingbehaviourmeasured in scientificstudies?

  21. Preventionaimsandrealities Preventiongoals Riskydrinkingmaybe early drinking (minor than 14) drinking at all drinking more than once (e.g. weeklyuse) high amounts (e.g. heavy episodic drinking) drinkingduringexaminations drunkenness (e.g. at least twice in lifetime) … • late onset • low frequency • low amount • reduction of risky use habits • drinking only in leisure-time • contextual abstinence • avoidintoxication • … cp. ESPAD, HBSC abstinenceand/or responsibledrinking?

  22. Operationalisationsofriskydrinking • Frequency • Weekly • Amountofalcohol • Heavy episodicdrinking: last month • Heavy episodicdrinking: lifetime • Consequencesofuse • Drunkenesslifetime (at least twice) • Setting ofuse • Alone • Theoreticalderivedcriteria • Nouseundertheageof 14 &lessthan 5 times last month &lessthan 5 units last drinkingoccasion

  23. Results

  24. Distribution ofindicators

  25. Distribution ofsumofindicators • Over twothirds do not reachanyofthecriteria • h.e.u. last monthdoes not appearsolely

  26. Relationshipsofindicators • Drinkingalonedoes not measurethe same • Correlationsoftheindicatorsshowmiddleto high size

  27. Ausgewählte Länder

  28. Summary • At least half ofthestudentsneverdrankalcoholin Iceland, Bosnia Herzegovina, France, Portugal, Cyprus and Norway • Estonia, Hungary, Czech Republic and Lithuania show the highest rates of lifetime use • Hungary, Estonia, Czech Republic, Denmark and Germany rank at the top and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Portugal and France at the bottom regarding last month use • Frequent drinking shows high ratings in Northern and Central European countries with Estonia, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, Hungary and Denmark • Considering lifetime drunkenness Northern and Eastern European Countries are leading (Estonia, Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Russia, Sweden and Norway) • Heavy drinking of beer, wine and breezersis a common consumption pattern in Western countries (Ireland, Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany) • adolescentalcoholusevariesenormouslyacrossEurope

  29. Summary • Drinking at least 5 units of spirits during one occasion is popular in countries like Estonia, Ireland, Denmark and Poland • Adolescentalcoholusemaybedescribed in complexusepatterns • Thereare countries withsimilaralcoholusepatterns • The Nordic drinking style which is characterized by using spirits in high amounts was found especially for Estonia and Lithuania. • The more beer, wine and breezers drinking culture with high levels of episodic drinking was more common in Central European countries • The Mediterranean style of drinking alcohol frequently but in moderation was more prevalent in France, Portugal and Bosnia and Herzegovina. • BUT: The problem‘ssizediffersdependent on theindicatorchosen • Forplaningandevaluationofpreventionprograms a multiple perspectiveofriskindicatorsshouldbetaken

  30. Open questions • Whichshouldbetheaimsofpreventiveefforts? • Whichcountrycharacteristicsmayexplainthesedifferences in adolescentalcoholuse?

  31. Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe Renate Soellner & Astrid-Britta Bräker University of Hildesheim • AAA-Prevent • AlcoholAbuseamongAdolescents in Europe • Effective Environmental StrategiesforPrevention

  32. based on % Country clustering: