Happy St. Patrick’s Day.
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Saint Patrick's Day (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig) is a yearly holiday celebrated on 17 March. It is named after Saint Patrick (circa AD 387–461), the most commonly recognized of the patron saints of Ireland. It began as a purely Christian holiday and became an official feast day in the early 1600s. However, it has gradually becomemore of a secular celebration of Ireland's culture.
Diane Ross, USA
What causes you to “show up” today? How do you come to this place?
What hopes do you have for this class time together?
This time together will be successful if…….
(Pair and share….)
Research is a frame of mind….a perspective that people take toward objects and activities (Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)
organized study: methodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered
Have you felt good about these…?
(Pair and share…)
The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship which explore aspects of human society.
linguistics, media studies, philology
psychology (at least in part)
Social justice is not static or timeless. The theory of justice is understood as an attempt to understand what a society’s actions, practices, and norms mean and to elucidate what a community’s shared understandings are so that they are agreed upon principles of social justice.
In small groups, respond to the sentences on your table.
How does this phrase inform your definition of peace research?
To move towards social justice, one must be in a constant state of social research.
Because all change processes begin with framing an issue and collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.
One of the most important things a change agent does it to articulate the questions…
Human beings and organizations move in the direction of what they inquire about….
What are the most pressing questions that you have had in the past few weeks…in your lifetime?
Inquiry and change are not separate, but are simultaneous. Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.
You need to learn how to generalize significantly what you know.
Share this list…..
We come to know ourselves by bringing to consciousness the process by which our view points are formed…
It is through language that we create the world, because it is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe….
Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity
Introduce Social Science field and tools and their alignment to Peace Studies
Introduce Research Process
Introduce Action Research Paradigm
Introduce Appreciative Inquiry Paradigm
Introduce structure of paper and research tools (including online databases)
Share personal research protocol with the class/ Graded assignment
Research question… (Work on this tonight/ butcher block paper)
Why do you want to know this?
What do you already know?
What do others know?
ProposalWhat do you propose to do?
What do you know differently now…and what will you do differently?
Working with Unattached Youth: Problem, approach, method (Goetschius and Tash 1967)
Attendance in class
Blueprint for a research project
20 min. per person
You lost your pair of shoes….
(Question “Where could my shoes be….”)
Reflect on where you put them
(Background Knowledge/ Literature Review)
Act to go and find them….
(Proposal for Action)
Observe that they are not there
Act upon new evidence…
(Proposal for new action based on data collection and analysis)…….
From positivism to relativism..
The knower and known cannot be separated
Not a single reality
Human knowledge is not based on unchallengeable, rock-solid foundations; it is conjectural.
Rising of the nuclear age
Gap between rich and poor
Global threat to the environment
John Dewey- constructivism..
it is in experience that one finds patterns of inquiry and logic useful for ordering and directing future events
Social methods can generally be subdivided into two broad categories...
attempts to quantify social phenomena
collect and analyze numerical data
focus on the links among a smaller number of attributes across many cases
Interpretation over quantification
Concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena
focus on links among a larger number of attributes across relatively few cases
Qualitative research involves an in depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern human behavior.
It investigates the why and how of decision making, as compared to what, where, and when of quantitative research.
Semi-structured/ Unstructured interview
Text based data….
immersing an individual researcher or research team in the everyday activities of an organization or society, usually for a prolonged period of time, very naturalistic, impossible to gather from laboratory or "clean room" observational studies.
Community analysis needs ethnography: an example from Romania
from it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience.
Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963), "the banality of evil"
Research is an ethical and political act
Internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis.
Knowledge derived is attained through tacit, intuitive or observed phenomena, is deepened through indwelling, focusing, self-searching or dialogue with others, and always needs a medium or base - its frame of reference
Loneliness, Moustakas, Clark
(I would say… focused on change…)
Paradigm of Praxis
dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.
scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations
Compare data and hypotheses
Compare data with values related to peace
Data must be explicit
Comparison carried out with rigor
Human behavior critics
How will you tell your story….
What is your topic’s relevance to the study of Peace and Conflict?
How does your topic fit into the broader context of Peace and Conflict issues?
Kurt Lewin (Action Research)
Factory post WWII
Italian young boys
David Cooperider/John McKnight (Appreciative Inquiry)
New York School- arts
Greatest art school in NY city
Practice is informed by knowledge,
It is an ongoing process
then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944,
research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action
• It is democratic, enabling the participation of all people.
• It is equitable, acknowledging people’s equality of worth.
• It is liberating, providing freedom from oppressive, debilitating conditions.
• It is life enhancing, enabling the expression of people’s full human potential.
(Stringer 1999: 9-10)
The roots of action research can be found in anthropology, social-psychology, and education. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice (Dewey, 1916, Goodenough, 1963, Lewin, 1946).
Cycle of reflective practice
Implementing a plan of action
Evaluating the action
Planning a report
Degree of empowerment given to all voices
Unrestrained dialogue between researcher and participants
Role of reflection (reflection in action)
What questions can you ask to help move this person forward and to help clarify their question….?
Give us an example of what it feels like and what it looks like to be treated with dignity and respect.
What is it???
particular way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization. In so doing, it enhances a system's capacity for collaboration and change
Organizational development process or philosophy
Engages individuals within an organizational system
Utilizes a 4-stage process
The identification of organizational processes that work well.
The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future.
Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well.
DESTINY (or DELIVER):
The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.
The approach acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment
Literature Review (secondary resources)
Data Collection: Raw data (primary resources)
It is written by an authority on the topic.
It contains accurate information.
It is relevant to your assignment.
It has a clear purpose (to persuade, inform, sell something etc).
The information it contains has been reviewed prior to publication.
While researching on the Internet:1. Always question why the information is being distributed on the Internet.2. Always notice the domain name (example: .gov or .org are generally more trustworthy than .com sites).3. Unless otherwise directed, there are better sites to use than Wikipedia.
.edu- An educational establishment runs the website. This does not mean that the information you find is academic, many schools provide students with their own web pages, which contain personal opinions and information that might not be correct.
.gov- Governmental Agencies
.net- Network provider
.com- Commercial establishments, companies such as Converse and Amazon have the .com suffix attached to their sites.
.org- Organizational web site. They are often nonprofit, i.e. .American Sociological Association or PETA. The intent is to influence public opinion about a particular cause or issue.
indispensable tools for performing research. A database is an electronic or computerized list of books, articles, and other publications.
Transcend Peace links
Peace media clearinghouse
Conflict analysis and
United States Institute for Peace
Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict
Peace and Conflict Studies
Peace Conflict Development
Sort (use colors, numbers, cut/paste)
Create concept map, chart, table…
Digital Voice Recording
Use rich, accurate detail
What do I make of all of this?
How does this fit into a larger framework?
Find one critical colleague
Sit down with that person
Face that person
Listen to that person without giving any advice
Ask questions to help the researcher clarify their research questions (use research protocol)
Student Presentations of Research Protocol