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happy st patrick s day

Happy St. Patrick’s Day

Saint Patrick's Day (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig) is a yearly holiday celebrated on 17 March. It is named after Saint Patrick (circa AD 387–461), the most commonly recognized of the patron saints of Ireland. It began as a purely Christian holiday and became an official feast day in the early 1600s. However, it has gradually becomemore of a secular celebration of Ireland's culture.

research for peace and social justice

Research for Peace and SocialJustice

Diane Ross, USA

Otterbein University

Westerville, Ohio

who am i what do i bring to the table

Who am I? What do I bring to the table





Peace Activist

how do i come to be here
How do I come to be here?
  • Dissertation Topic
      • The researcher, a middle childhood teacher educator operating under the assumption that teacher educators must examine their own dispositions to practice social justice and equity in order to model them for teacher candidates, applied heuristics, an autobiographical phenomenological method, to explore this issue. She concluded that middle childhood teacher educators must spend their own lives acquiring dispositions to practice social justice and equity if the pre-service educators they instruct are to have any possibility of acquiring these dispositions themselves.
student response
Student response….

What causes you to “show up” today? How do you come to this place?

What hopes do you have for this class time together?

This time together will be successful if…….

what do you know what questions do you have
What do you know?What questions do you have?
  • Philosophical perspectives
    • Positivist/Post-positivist
  • Social Research
  • Quantitative/ Qualitative
  • Action Research
  • Appreciative Inquiry
  • Research Proposal
i what is research

I. What is research?

(Pair and share….)

what is research
What is research?

Research is a frame of mind….a perspective that people take toward objects and activities (Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)

what is research1
What is research?

organized study: methodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered

what are your experiences with research

What are your experiences with research?

Have you felt good about these…?

(Pair and share…)

what is social research
What is social research?

The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship which explore aspects of human society.

social research disciplines
Social Research disciplines….



comparative musicology

communication studies

cultural studies




human geography

international development

international relations

linguistics, media studies, philology

political science

psychology (at least in part)

social work

social policy


social justice and research basic premise for the class
Social Justice and Research….Basic premise for the class…

Social justice is not static or timeless. The theory of justice is understood as an attempt to understand what a society’s actions, practices, and norms mean and to elucidate what a community’s shared understandings are so that they are agreed upon principles of social justice.

ii what is peace research galtung article
II. What is Peace Research? (Galtung article)

In small groups, respond to the sentences on your table.

How does this phrase inform your definition of peace research?


Because all change processes begin with framing an issue and collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.

elements of peace research
Elements of Peace Research


Explicit value





student response1
Student response

What are the most pressing questions that you have had in the past few weeks…in your lifetime?

inner outer circle

Inner/ Outer circle….

Sharing strategy


Inquiry and change are not separate, but are simultaneous. Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.


Brainstorm a list of peace and justice issues closest to you.

    • What questions do you have?
  • Rotate…..
  • Share list….
You will learn what you already know.

You need to learn how to generalize significantly what you know.


Pare this down to the most important question that you have right now.

    • Why is this important to you?
    • What do you know already about this.
  • Rotate….
  • Share…..

We come to know ourselves by bringing to consciousness the process by which our view points are formed…


It is through language that we create the world, because it is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe….

Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity

goals for the week
Goals for the week


Introduce Social Science field and tools and their alignment to Peace Studies

Monday Afternoon

Introduce Research Process

Introduce Action Research Paradigm

Tuesday Morning

Introduce Appreciative Inquiry Paradigm

Tuesday Afternoon

Introduce structure of paper and research tools (including online databases)

Wednesday Morning

Share personal research protocol with the class/ Graded assignment

format of research at wpa
Format of research at WPA

Research question… (Work on this tonight/ butcher block paper)

Why do you want to know this?

What do you already know?

Literature review

What do others know?

ProposalWhat do you propose to do?


What do you know differently now…and what will you do differently?


Action Research


Working with Unattached Youth: Problem, approach, method (Goetschius and Tash 1967)

ending project grade
Ending project/ Grade….

Attendance in class

Blueprint for a research project

monday afternoon

Monday Afternoon

Research Process

sharing your research question and explanation with a critical colleague

Sharing your research question and explanation with a Critical Colleague….

20 min. per person

research process
Research process..

You lost your pair of shoes….

(Question “Where could my shoes be….”)

Reflect on where you put them

(Background Knowledge/ Literature Review)

Act to go and find them….

(Proposal for Action)

Observe that they are not there

(Data Collection)

Reflect again….

(Data Analysis)

Act upon new evidence…

(Proposal for new action based on data collection and analysis)…….

from positivism to post positivism

From positivism to post-positivism….

From positivism to relativism..

post positivist

The knower and known cannot be separated

Not a single reality

Human knowledge is not based on unchallengeable, rock-solid foundations; it is conjectural.

research paradigms
Research Paradigms

Positivist/ Modernist





Coherent self

Post-positivist/ Postmodernist

Rising of the nuclear age

Gap between rich and poor

Global threat to the environment



supporters of post positivism
Supporters of Post-Positivism..

John Dewey- constructivism..

it is in experience that one finds patterns of inquiry and logic useful for ordering and directing future events

…rejects the notion of researcher neutrality, understanding that the most active researcher is often one who has most at stake in resolving a problematic situation.
research paradigms1
Research Paradigms

Social methods can generally be subdivided into two broad categories...



While very different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theories and data
quantitative methods
Quantitative methods

attempts to quantify social phenomena

collect and analyze numerical data

focus on the links among a smaller number of attributes across many cases

tools of quantitative researchers
Tools of quantitative researchers



Structured interview

Structured observation

Content analysis

Secondary analysis

qualitative methods
Qualitative methods

Personal experiences

Interpretation over quantification

Concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena

focus on links among a larger number of attributes across relatively few cases

qualitative research
Qualitative research

Qualitative research involves an in depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern human behavior.

It investigates the why and how of decision making, as compared to what, where, and when of quantitative research.

Hence, the need is for smaller but focused samples rather than large random samples, which qualitative research categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results
tools of qualitative methods
Tools of qualitative methods

Focus groups

Participant observation

Journals, diaries

Semi-structured/ Unstructured interview

Text based data….


immersing an individual researcher or research team in the everyday activities of an organization or society, usually for a prolonged period of time, very naturalistic, impossible to gather from laboratory or "clean room" observational studies.  

Community analysis needs ethnography: an example from Romania


from it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience.

Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963), "the banality of evil"

  • Gender research
    • Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story. By Ruth Behar. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1993.
    • Troubling the Angels, Patti Lather..
critical theory
Critical theory

Research is an ethical and political act

Paulo Friere

auto ethnography
  • Writing about the Self Analytically
    • Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez: An Autobiography. By Richard Rodriguez. Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, 1982.
    • Social blindness: An autoethnographic study of the interplay of language, cognition, and genetics in a family with an autistic child.

Internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis.

Knowledge derived is attained through tacit, intuitive or observed phenomena, is deepened through indwelling, focusing, self-searching or dialogue with others, and always needs a medium or base - its frame of reference

Loneliness, Moustakas, Clark

peace studies are johan galtung 2005 peace a ten point primer
Peace studies are……..Johan Galtung (2005, Peace: A Ten Point Primer)




(I would say… focused on change…)

Paradigm of Praxis




dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.

scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations

Construct hypotheses

Compare data and hypotheses



Politically empowering

Compare data with values related to peace

Data must be explicit

Comparison carried out with rigor

Human behavior critics

constructive studies
Constructive studies
  • Do not shy away from making recommendations
    • Adequate reasoning
    • Value premises
    • Adequate data
    • Explicit values
    • Well tested theories
your research

Your research…

How will you tell your story….


What is your topic’s relevance to the study of Peace and Conflict?

How does your topic fit into the broader context of Peace and Conflict issues?

what are the possibilities of social research that lead to social justice and peace
What are the possibilities of social research that lead to social justice and peace…

Kurt Lewin (Action Research)

Factory post WWII

Italian young boys

Jewish synagogues

David Cooperider/John McKnight (Appreciative Inquiry)

New York School- arts

Children interviewing…

Greatest art school in NY city

Knowledge is derived from practice

Practice is informed by knowledge,

It is an ongoing process

kurt lewin
Kurt Lewin

then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944,

research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action


• It is democratic, enabling the participation of all people.

• It is equitable, acknowledging people’s equality of worth.

• It is liberating, providing freedom from oppressive, debilitating conditions.

• It is life enhancing, enabling the expression of people’s full human potential.

(Stringer 1999: 9-10)

action research1
Action research

The roots of action research can be found in anthropology, social-psychology, and education. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice (Dewey, 1916, Goodenough, 1963, Lewin, 1946).

action research is
Action Research is….

Cycle of reflective practice


Made Public

Act to improve practice by

Implementing a plan of action

Evaluating the action

Planning a report

action research cycle of reflective practice1
Action ResearchCycle of Reflective Practice…
  • Observe the consequences of one’s action
    • Collecting data
    • Describing what is there
action research cycle of reflective practice2
Action ResearchCycle of Reflective Practice
  • Reflect on the situation, one’s self, and the research process exploring:
    • Exploring: What is happening here
    • Interpreting and explaining: How/why are things as they are
    • Reconsidering: In what ways can I make the research process better
key elements
Key Elements

Degree of empowerment given to all voices

Unrestrained dialogue between researcher and participants

Role of reflection (reflection in action)

assignment for tuesday morning
Assignment for Tuesday morning
  • Appreciative Inquiry/Read the complete excerpt from
    • A Positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry by David L. Cooperrider and Diana Whitney
gallery walk

Gallery Walk….

What questions can you ask to help move this person forward and to help clarify their question….?


Give us an example of what it feels like and what it looks like to be treated with dignity and respect.

appreciative inquiry is
Appreciative Inquiry is….

particular way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization. In so doing, it enhances a system's capacity for collaboration and change

appreciative inquiry1
Appreciative Inquiry

Organizational development process or philosophy

Engages individuals within an organizational system

Utilizes a 4-stage process

stages of appreciative inquiry
Stages of Appreciative Inquiry


The identification of organizational processes that work well.


The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future.


Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well.


The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.


Generative process

  • Organic process (all parts are defined by the whole….cannot take an organization apart to study pieces
  • What do we do well?
Build organizations around what works, rather than trying to fix what doesn't... It can be enjoyable and natural to many managers, who are often sociable people

The approach acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment

Used extensively to foster change in businesses (a variety of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.
two goals for this afternoon
Two goals for this afternoon
  • Introduce the basis of a good literature review
  • Introduce data collection techniques and data analysis techniques and tools
tools for research
Tools for research

Literature Review (secondary resources)

Data Collection: Raw data (primary resources)

Data analysis

chapter ii
Chapter II
  • Literature Review
good literature review
Good literature review…

It is written by an authority on the topic.

It contains accurate information.

It is relevant to your assignment.

It has a clear purpose (to persuade, inform, sell something etc).

The information it contains has been reviewed prior to publication.

using the internet
Using the Internet

While researching on the Internet:1. Always question why the information is being distributed on the Internet.2. Always notice the domain name (example: .gov or .org are generally more trustworthy than .com sites).3. Unless otherwise directed, there are better sites to use than Wikipedia.

internet sites according to suffix
Internet sites according to suffix

.edu- An educational establishment runs the website. This does not mean that the information you find is academic, many schools provide students with their own web pages, which contain personal opinions and information that might not be correct.

.gov- Governmental Agencies

.net- Network provider

.com- Commercial establishments, companies such as Converse and Amazon have the .com suffix attached to their sites.

.org- Organizational web site. They are often nonprofit, i.e. .American Sociological Association or PETA. The intent is to influence public opinion about a particular cause or issue.


indispensable tools for performing research. A database is an electronic or computerized list of books, articles, and other publications.


Transcend Media

  • http://www.transcend.org/tms/index.php

Transcend Peace links

  • http://www.transcend.org/tms/links.php

Peace media clearinghouse

  • http://peacemedia.usip.org/teachingguides

Swiss Peace

  • http://www.swisspeace.ch/typo3/en/publications/index.html$


  • http://www.unesco.org

Conflict analysis and

  • http://library.gmu.edu/resources/socsci/conflict.html

Journal of Religion Conflict, and Peace

  • http://www.plowsharesproject.org/journal/s-tools

United States Institute for Peace

  • http://www.usip.org/resources-tools
  • http://www.usip.org/resources/online-journals

Conciliation Resources

  • http://www.c-r.org/index.php

Journal of Humanitarian Assistance

  • http://jha.ac/

Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict

  • http://jspc.library.wisc.edu/index2.html

Peace and Conflict Studies

  • http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/pcs/

Peace Conflict Development 

  • http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/
formatting and style guide
Formatting and style guide






data interpretation step 2
Data Interpretation…Step 2



Sort (use colors, numbers, cut/paste)



Find Patterns


Create concept map, chart, table…



Digital Voice Recording


data interpretation step 1
Data Interpretation….Step #1


Use rich, accurate detail

data interpretation step 3
Data interpretation… Step #3

Interpret/ Explain

What do I make of all of this?

How does this fit into a larger framework?

critical colleagues
Critical Colleagues

Find one critical colleague

Sit down with that person

Face that person

Listen to that person without giving any advice

Ask questions to help the researcher clarify their research questions (use research protocol)

wednesday morning

Wednesday morning

Student Presentations of Research Protocol