Native American Rights Movement By Fan Yang, Renate Mols
Key Terms • American Indian Movement (AIM) • The Longest Walk • National Congress of American Indians • Trail of Broken Treaties • New Rights & Laws
Overview of Topic • Throughout history Native Americans have been overlooked and stepped on as much as any other group of minorities. During and after WWII, Native Americans have pressed much more for their rights and land . Activist groups such as the American Indian Movement, and the National Congress of American Indians were created. The Natives took inspiration from other minorities groups as well as inspired more to speak out.
National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) 1944 • This organization was designed to monitor federal policies. Over 250 member tribes work to: • secure the rights and benefits to which they are entitled; • enlighten the public toward the better understanding of Indian people • preserve rights under Indian treaties or agreements with the United States • to promote the common welfare of the American Indians and Alaskan Natives.
American Indian Movement (AIM) 1968 • The AIM was created in 1968 in Minesota by Dennis Banks, George Mitchell and many others. • The group mainly focused on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty. • In October 1972 AIM gathered members from across the country to protest in Washington, D.C., on what they called the "Trail of Broken Treaties.”
Trail of Broken Treaties 1972 • This was a cross-country protest created by 8 Native activist groups – mainly AIM – to bring attention to issues such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housing. • In Minnesota, a 20 point proposition paper was created reestablish the sovereignty of the Indian Nation and discuss past policies never brought up to Congress.
The Longest Walk 1978 • This 3,600 mile walk from Alcatraz Island to Washington DC took over a month to complete. It gathered all activists across the country to DC and educated about the US government infringing on tribal sovereignty (tribes’ right to govern themselves).
New Rights & Laws • 1972 - IndianEducation Act - This Congressional Act established funding for special bilingual and bicultural programs, culturally relevant teaching materials, and appropriate training and hiring of counselors. It also created an Office of Indian Education in the US Department of Education. • 1978 - American Indian Religious Freedom Act -This Congressional Act promised to "protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise" traditional religions.
Bibliography • "A Brief Histry of AIM." - American Indian Movement. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.aimovement.org/ggc/history.html>. • "Native American Civil Rights Timeline." Welcome to Knowitall.org. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://www.knowitall.org/roadtrip/cr-html/facts/timelines/na/index.cfm>. • "The Native American Movement." Country Studies. Web. 21 Mar. 2012. <http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-133.htm>