the skeletal system the appendicular skeleton n.
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The skeletal system: the appendicular skeleton. The Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder). 2 pectoral girdles attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton each: 1 clavicle 1 scapula. Clavicle . S-shaped, (medial ½ convex anteriorly , lateral ½ concave anteriorly ) slender bone

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the pectoral girdle shoulder
The Pectoral Girdle(Shoulder)
  • 2 pectoral girdles
  • attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton
  • each: 1 clavicle
  • 1 scapula
clavicle
Clavicle
  • S-shaped, (medial ½ convex anteriorly, lateral ½ concave anteriorly) slender bone
  • lies horizontally across anterior thorax superior to 1st rib
clavicle1
Clavicle
  • medial end = sternal end is rounded & articulates with the manubrium @ sternoclavicular joint
clavicle2
Clavicle
  • lateral end = acromial end is flat
  • articulates with acromion of the scapula to form acromialclavicular joint
clavicle3
Clavicle
  • last bone to stop growing
  • 1 of most frequently fx’d bones (2 curves) usually from fall on outstretched arm
  • or see compression fx in auto accidents from shoulder strap which can cause damage to median n. (between clavicle & 2nd rib)
scapula
Scapula
  • aka shoulder blade, angel bone
  • large, triangular, flat bone
  • in superior part of posterior thorax between levels of 2nd & 7th ribs
  • spine: prominent ridge that runs diagonally across posterior surface
slide8

lateral edge: acromion a flattened expanded process, easily felt as hi pt of shoulder (tailors use it as landmark to measure length of arm)

  • glenoid cavity: inferior to acromion, smooth, shallow depression that accepts head of humerus in shoulder joint
upper limb
Upper Limb
  • 6 parts:
  • Humerus
  • Ulna
  • Radius
  • Carpals
  • Metacarpals
  • Phalanges
  • Joints:
  • Shoulder
  • Elbow
  • Wrist
  • Hand
humerus
Humerus
  • longest & largest bone of upper limb
  • articulates proximally with scapula & distally with ulna & radius
  • head: rounded proximal end
          • articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula to form glenohumeral joint
humerus2
Humerus
  • distal end:
  • capitulum: rounded knob on lateral aspect that articulates with head of radius
  • trochlea: medial to capitulum, spool-shaped, articulates with ulna
slide15
Ulna
  • medial aspect of forearm
  • longer than radius
  • proximal end: olecranon (prominence in elbow)
  • distal end: head, styloid process (posterior)
radius
Radius
  • lateral aspect of forearm
  • proximal end: head of radius: articulates with capitulum
  • distal end: styloid process (palpable proximal to thumb)
ulna radius
Ulna & Radius
  • connect @ 3 places
  • interosseous membrane
  • proximal end
  • distal end
carpals
Carpals
  • proximal to the hand, distal to radius & ulna
  • 8 small bones joined by ligaments
  • articulations w/each other called intercarpal joints
phalanges
Phalanges
  • 14 bones of the digits (each hand)
  • #’d I to V beginning with thumb
  • thumb is the pollex has only 2 phalanges, other digits have 3
  • joints between phalanges called interphalangeal joints
pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle
  • 2 hip bones (oscoxa) which unite anteriorly at pubic symphysisand posteriorly with the sacrum @ sacroiliac joint
pelvic girdle1
Pelvic Girdle
  • Functions:
  • provides sturdy support for vertebral column
  • connects lower limb to axial skeleton
newborn pelvis
Newborn Pelvis
  • 3 bones on each side:
  • Ilium
    • superior
  • Pubis
    • anterior & inferior
  • Ischium
  • posterior & inferior
ilium
Ilium
  • largest of the 3 hip bones
  • distinguishing features:
  • Iliac Crest
  • along superior surface
  • Sacroiliac Joint (SI Joint)
  • between sacrum and ilium
ischium
Ischium
  • ramus of ischium fuses with pubis
  • distinguishing features:
  • IschialTuberosity
  • what you feel when someone sits on your lap
pubis
Pubis
  • Acetabulum
    • formed by ilium, ischium, & pubis
    • is the “socket” half of the hip joint
  • Pubic Symphysis
    • joint between the 2 hip bones
true pelvis false pelvis
True Pelvis/ False Pelvis
  • Pelvic Brim: line that distinguishes between true & false palvis
male pelvis
Male Pelvis
  • generally male bone heavier & stronger & have larger surface marker (because larger muscles attach)
  • Pelvis:
    • deeper false pelvis, smaller, narrower
    • pelvic brim heart-shaped
    • acetabulum larger, faces posterior
    • obturator foramen round
female pelvis
Female Pelvis
  • generally bones lighter & thinner
  • Pelvis:
    • false pelvis shallow, widers
    • pelvic brim larger, more oval
    • acetabulum smaller & faces anterior
    • obturator foramen oval
lower limb
Lower Limb
  • 30 bones in each:
  • 1 femur
  • 1 patella
  • 1 tibia
  • 1 fibula
  • 7 tarsals
  • 5 metatarsals
  • 14 phalanges
femur
Femur
  • longest, heaviest, & strongest bone in the body
  • proximally articulates with the acetabulum to form hip joint
    • Head of the Femur: “ball” part of joint
      • small, central depression: fovea capitis
    • Greater Trochanter
      • prominence felt & seen @ side of hip
femur2
Femur
  • distally articulates with:
    • Patella
    • Tibia
patella kneecap
Patella (kneecap)
  • small, triangular, sesamoid bone
  • develops in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle
  • Parts:
  • Base: broad, superior end
  • Apex: pointed, inferior end
tibia
Tibia

“shin bone”

larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of lower leg

proximally articulates with femur & fibula

distally articulates with fibula & tarsals

tibia1
Tibia
  • medial malleolus forms prominence that is palpable & visible on medial ankle
fibula
Fibula
  • parallel & lateral to the tibia & considerably smaller
  • head of fibula on proximal end
  • lateral malleolus at distal end
tarsals
Tarsals
  • 7 bones:
  • 1 calcaneous: heel bone, largest of the tarsals
metatarsals
Metatarsals
  • 5 bones between tarsals & phalanges
  • #’d I to V from medial  lateral
phalanges2
Phalanges
  • 14 bones that make up the 5 digits
  • #’d I to V medial to lateral
  • Hallux: great or big toe has 2 large heavy phalanges
arches of the foot
Arches of the Foot
  • 2 arches in foot:
  • allows the foot to support weight of body by distributing weight over the soft & hard tissues
  • provide leverage while walking

fully developed by age 12 - 13

arches of the foot1
Arches of the Foot
  • 2 longitudinal arches (medial & lateral
  • 1 transverse arch