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Human A&P PowerPoint Presentation

Human A&P

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Human A&P

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  1. Human A&P Unit 6: Axial Skeleton

  2. 80 bones that make up the cranium, facial bones, vertebral column, sacrum & thoracic cage I. Axial Skeleton - _______________________ _____________________________________ A. Bone Surfaces & Marking Terms specific to the axial skeleton: 1. ____________________- a tube- like channel within a bone Meatus Ex- hole for ear in the skull

  3. Facet B. ___________________- smooth, flat, articular surface. Ex – where vertebrae contact each other in the spinal column

  4. Skull Bones P.rotects II. Cranial Bones or the Cranium (____________) A. Functions of the Cranium: 1. __________________ the brain. 2. ________________ to the brain via the meninges (membrane covering the brain) 3. _______________ of the head via attachment surface for muscles. ACRONYM HELP: _________________ A.ttachment M.ovement P.A.M.

  5. _____________ ____________- protects the frontal lobe of the brain. Frontal Bone (1 only) B. The 8 Cranial Bones & Their Functions:

  6. _____________ ____________- protects the parietal lobe of the brain. Parietal Bone (2 bones)

  7. _____________ ____________- protects the occipital lobe of the brain. Occipital Bone (1 bone)

  8. _______________________- protects the temporal lobe of the brain. Temporal Bone (2 bones)

  9. __________________________ - helps to hold other cranial bones together by creating the “floor” of the cranial cavity. Sphenoid bone (1 bone)

  10. Ethmoid bone (1 bone) _______________________- also forms part of the cranial floor.

  11. Frontal sinus __________ - space within frontal bone that gives resonance to voice. C. Parts of the Cranial bones and their functions:

  12. _________________ - space in the sphenoid bone that drains into the nasal cavity. sphenoidal sinus

  13. _______________- oval processes on the occipital bone that connect to the 1st cervical vertebrae Occipital condyles Foramen magnum ___________________- opening in the occipital bone that contains the medulla oblongota & connects to the spinal cord.

  14. Zygomatic Arch ______________- process of the temporal bone that joins with zygomatic bone. ______________________-canal of the temporal bone to the middle ear. External auditory meatus ______________________-attachment site of temporal bone for ligaments & tongue and neck muscles. Styloid Process

  15. ______________________-opening of the sphenoid bone that allows the optic nerve to pass. Optic foramen

  16. ___________________-part of ethmoid bone that forms roof of the nasal cavity. Cribriform plate

  17. __________________________- little openings of the ethmoid bone that allows fibers of the olfactory nerve (smell) to pass through here. Olfactory foramina

  18. ________________-of the ethmoid bone that helps to clean air and creates turbulence when inhaling via nose. (ethmoid also has _________ ________________ but it is too “high” up to see. Middle conchae superior middle conchae

  19. Coronal D. Sutures of the cranium: sagittal lambdoid

  20. squamous

  21. E. Fontanels of Infants - _____________________ ________________________________________ membrane-filled space between cranial bones that allow the shape of skull to be altered during birth ___________________-soft spot on the top of the head that closes around 18-24 months via __________________ ossification. Anterior Fontanel intramembraneous

  22. Posterior Fontanel ___________________-at the back of the head. Closes around 2 months after birth.

  23. III. Facial Bones f the Skull A. 14 Facial Bones _________________________-forms the bridge of the nose. The rest is cartilage. Nasal bone (2 bones)

  24. Zygomatic bone (2 bones) ____________________________-forms the cheek bones.

  25. _________________________-articulates with every bone of the face except for the mandible. Maxilla bone (2 bones)

  26. Mandible bone (1 bone) ____________________________-lower jawbone. It is the strongest, largest facial bone & the only movable skull bone.

  27. ____________________________-like the other conchae, it helps to filter & increase the turbulence of air. Inferior nasal conchae (2 bone)

  28. ____________________________-makes up part of the nasal septum. Vomer (1 bone)

  29. ____________________________-makes up part of the orbit. Lacrimal bone (2 bones)

  30. ____________________________-fuse together to form the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, part of the nasal cavity & a small part of the orbits. Palatine bones (2 bones)

  31. B. Parts of the Facial Bones & Their Features ____________________________-cavities in the maxilla that empty into the nasal cavity. Maxillary sinus

  32. The __________ ____________ of the maxilla hold the ___________ (sockets for the teeth). These are also found on the ___________. Alveolar processes alveoli mandible

  33. _____________________________- hole in the mandible used by dentists to inject anesthetic into the mental nerve. Mental Foramen

  34. _____________________________- formed by the vomer, ethmoid bone and cartilage that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves. Nasal Septum

  35. Mandibular Fossa ___________________________- dip in the temporal bone where the lower jaw attaches. _____________________________- located on the mandible & articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone to form the __________________________ joint (TMJ). Mandibular condyle Temporomandibular

  36. Cleft Palate C. Disorders & Ailments Relating to the Facial Bones: 1. _______________________- when the right and left maxillary bones and possibly even the right & left palatine bones do not fuse together before birth and a hole occurs in the roof of the mouth.

  37. Swallowing & speech problems a. Problems this can lead to: i. _____________________________ b. Options for correcting: i. ___________________ around 12-18 months of age. surgery

  38. Cleft lip 2. _________________- when the upper lip is split due to a severe cleft palate. a. problems this can lead to: i. _____________________________ b. options for correcting: i. surgery during the first _________ ____________ after birth. Severe eating problems and possibly even death Few weeks

  39. Jane Kaczmarek Reports on Smile Train From India

  40. Deviated Nasal Septum 3. _______________________- when the nasal septum bends sideways and may even block one nasal passage. a. problems this can lead to: i. ____________________________ ____________________________ b. options for correcting: i. ____________________________ Congestion, sinus infection, nosebleeds, headaches surgery


  42. TMJ syndrome 4. _______________________- a pain & popping sound around the ear when opening or closing the mouth which can result in:______________________________ ______________________________________ headaches & abnormal wear of the teeth due to improper joint alignment

  43. Hyoid Bone IV. Accessory Bones of the Axial Skeleton A. _____________________- suspended from the styloid process of the temporal bone and located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx. 1. Function: supports the _________ and provides an attachment point for muscles of the_____________ ____________________________. (It is commonly fractured during strangulation) tongue tongue, neck & pharynx

  44. Auditory Ossicles B. __________________________ - 6 small bones (3 in each ear) of the inner ear that enable us to hear.

  45. P. rotects V. The Vertebral Column: A. Functions of the vertebral column 1. _____________________ the spinal cord. 2. __________________ the skull. 3. ______________ attachment (ribs & pelvic girdle). 4. _________________ attachment (back & neck muscles) 5. ______________________ distribution Acronym help:______________________________ S. upports B. one M. uscle W. eight Please Santa….a BMW