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Anatomy of Skeletal Elements. The Musculoskeletal system. 206 bones grouped into the axial and appendicular skeletons 650 muscles approximately 40% of your body weight also divided into an axial and an appendicular division. Classification of Bones.

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the musculoskeletal system
The Musculoskeletal system
  • 206 bones
      • grouped into the axial and appendicular skeletons
  • 650 muscles
    • approximately 40% of your body weight
    • also divided into an axial and an appendicular division
classification of bones
Classification of Bones
  • 6 types - based on anatomical classification
    • Long bones = greater length than width
    • Short bones = cube-shaped, spongy bone except at surface
    • Flat bones = two parallel plates of compact bone sandwiching spongy bone layer

Irregular bones = cannot be grouped

  • Sesamoid bones = develop in tendons where there is considerable friction, tension and stress
  • Sutural bones = located within joints between cranial bones
bone markings surface features
Bone Markings (surface features)
  • Used to identify specific elevations, depressions, and openings of bones
  • Bone markings provide distinct and characteristic landmarks for orientation and identification of bones and associated structures.
bony processes
Bony Processes
  • Depressions and openings
    • Fissure – narrow slit
    • Foramen – hole for nerves, blood vessels
    • Fossa – cuplike depression
    • Sulcus – furrow on a bone surface, contains a nerve or blood vessel
    • Meatus – tubelike opening
  • Processes – projection or outgrowth on bone for attachment
    • Condyle – smoothened process at end of bone, forms a joint
    • Facet – smooth flat surface, forms a joint
    • Head – rounded condyle on a neck, forms a joint
    • Crest – prominent ridge or projection, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Epicondyle – projection above a condyle, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Line – long, narrow ridge (less prominent than a crest), for attachment of connective tissues
    • Spinous process – sharp, slender projection, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Trochanter – process of the femur, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Tubercle – process of the humerus, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Tuberosity – roughening on a bone surface, for attachment of connective tissues
skeletal system includes
Skeletal system includes
  • Axial division
    • Skull and associated bones
      • Auditory ossicles
      • Hyoid bones
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
      • Ribs sternum
  • Appendicular division
    • -Pectoral girdle
    • -Pelvic girdle
the axial skeleton
The Axial Skeleton
  • Axial division
    • Skull and associated bones
      • Auditory ossicles
      • Hyoid bones
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
      • Ribs sternum

The Adult Skull

  • skull = 22 bones
  • cranium = 8 bones: frontals, occipital, temporals, parietals, sphenoid and ethmoid
  • facial bones = 14 bones: nasals, maxillae, zygomatics, mandible, lacrimals, palatines,
  • inferior nasal conchae, vomer
  • skull forms a larger cranial cavity
  • -also forms the nasal cavity, the orbits, paranasal sinuses
  • mandible and auditory ossicles are the only movable skull bones
  • skull contains many holes for the passage of nerves and vessels = foramen/foramina
  • cranial bones also: attach to membranes called meninges
  • -stabilize positions of the brain, blood vessels
  • -outer surface provides large areas for muscle attachment that
  • move the head or provide facial expressions

black eyes: superior to the supraorbital ridge is a sharp ridge

-a blow will fracture the bone and result in bleeding & inflammation

cleft lip and palate: palatine processes usually unite at embryonic weeks 10-12

-failure results in a hole = cleft palate

-the palatine bones themselves may fail to fuse

-a split in the upper lip may also result = cleft lip

-complications: speech, swallowing, ear infections -> hearing loss

-closure of cleft lip - few weeks after birth

-closure of cleft palate - 12 to 18 months

TMJ: associated with the temperomandibular joint

-dull pain around ear, tenderness of jaw, difficulty chewing, headache

-results from grinding of teeth and clenching of jaws

-no permanent treatments

deviated nasal septum: nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left


-three components: vomer, septal cartilage & perpendicular plate of the


-deviation results in a later deflection of the septum

-severe deviation may affect breathin

  • Immovable joints
  • Form boundaries between skull bones
  • Four main sutures
    • Coronal
    • Sagittal
    • Lambdoid
    • Squamous
    • PLUS lots of smaller sutures
      • e.g Frontonasal
      • e.g. Temperozygomatic
skull posterior view
Skull: Posterior View
  • Occipital bone
      • Part of the base of the skull
      • Surrounds the foramen magnum
      • Forms part of the jugular foramen

Mastoid notch


Parietal bones

    • -Part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium

Temporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid

Frontal process of zygomatic



Lacrimal bone





Maxillary process

of zygomatic



  • Temporal bone
    • -Forms wall of jugular foramen
    • -Petrous part houses tympanic cavity
      • Auditory ossicles transmit sound to inner ear

Supraorbital ridge

Or margin


Internasal suture

  • Frontal bone
    • Forms the forehead
    • Roof of the orbit

Frontal process of maxilla

Zygomatic process

of maxilla

the orbit
The Orbit
  • Orbital complex
    • Bony recess that holds the eye
    • Seven bones
      • Frontal bone
      • Lacrimal bones
      • Palatine bones
      • Zygomatic bones
      • Ethmoid
      • Sphenoid
      • Maxillae
skull inferior view
Skull: Inferior View





Condylar fossa

Condylar foramen

may be present

figure 6 4 sectional anatomy of the skull part i

Skull: Interior View

Figure 6.4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull, Part I

Tuberculum sellae



Cerebral surface of

Greater wing of sphenoid

Hypophyseal fossa

Dorsum sella

Lesser wing of sphenoid



Sphenoid bone
    • Contributes to floor of cranium
    • Bridges cranial and facial bones
    • Optic canal allows passage of optic nerve
    • Pterygoid processes sites of muscle attachment
Ethmoid Bone
    • Irregularly shaped bone
    • Forms part of orbital wall
    • Forms roof of nasal cavity
    • Cribriform plate
    • Perforations for olfactory nerve
    • Perpendicular plate
    • Nasal septum

Cranial Fossae

  • Depressions in cranial floor
  • Anterior cranial fossa
    • Frontal bone, ethmoid, lesser wings of sphenoid
  • Middle cranial fossa
    • Sphenoid, temporal bones, parietal bones
  • Posterior cranial fossa
    • Occipital bone, temporal bones, parietal bones
bones of the face
Bones of the Face
  • Maxillae
    • Paired bone
    • Largest facial bones
    • Form upper jaw
    • Entire lower jaw
    • Articulates with temporal bone
    • Temporomandibular joint
Nasal bones
    • Paired bones
    • Articulate with frontal bone
    • Extend to superior border of external nares
  • Vomer
    • Forms inferior portion of nasal septum
    • Articulates with maxillae and palatines
  • Inferior nasal concha
    • Located on each side of nasal septum
    • Increase epithelial surface
    • Create turbulence in inspired air
  • Zygomatic bone
    • Temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone
    • Forms zygomatic arch
  • Lacrimal bones
    • Smallest bones in skull
    • Forms nasolacrimal groove leading to nasolacrimal canal
    • Delivers tears to nasal cavity
Palatine bones
    • Small
    • L-shaped
    • Form posterior portion of hard palate
    • Contribute to floor of orbit
the nasal complex
The Nasal Complex
  • Bones and cartilage that enclose the nasal cavity
  • Paranasal sinuses
    • Hollow airways
    • Frontal bones, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillae
the hyoid bone
The Hyoid Bone
  • Suspended by stylohyoid ligaments
  • Consists of a body, greater horns and lesser horns
  • Base for muscles of the tongue and larynx
  • Fibrous connections
  • Permit infant skulls to pass through birth canal
  • Permit the skulls of infants and children to continue growth
  • The flat bones in the infant skull are separated by fontanels, which allow for cranial expansion and the distortion of the skull during birth.
adult vertebral column
Adult Vertebral Column
  • strong, flexible rod
    • average male = 71 cm (28 inches)
    • average female – 61 cm (24 inches)
  • capable of moving
    • anteriorly
    • posteriorly
    • laterally
    • also rotation
  • supports the head
  • encloses and protects the spinal cord
  • allows for the exit of 31 pairs of spinal nerves – through intervertebral foramina
adult vertebral column39
Adult Vertebral Column
  • 26 vertebrae
    • 24 individual vertebrae
    • Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
    • Coccyx – 4 fused vertebrae
  • Seven cervical vertebrae
  • Twelve thoracic vertebrae
  • Five lumbar vertebrae
adult vertebral column40
Adult Vertebral Column
  • vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs
    • discs of fibrocartilage made up of an outer ring and a softer inner region
    • found between C1 and C2 and all the way down to between L5 and the sacrum
    • form the joints of the vertebral column
    • absorb shock – flatten, broaden and bulge outward
    • weakening in the outer ring can allow the herniation of the inner material
spinal curvature
Spinal Curvature
  • Four curvatures: increase the strength of the column
    • Thoracic (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
    • Sacral (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
    • Cervical (secondary) – forms when the baby holds its head erect
    • Lumbar (secondary) – forms upon walking

Every vertebrae has the following:

    • 1. body – weight bearing part of the vertebra
      • separated by the discs
    • 2. vertebral arch – surrounds the spinal cord
      • surrounds a hole called a vertebral foramen
    • 3. processes – seven of them
      • 1. Spinous (1) – muscle attachment
      • 2. Transverse (2) – muscle attachment
      • 3. Superior articular (2) – forms joint with upper vertebra
      • 4. Inferior articular (2) – forms joint with lower vertebra

Cervical Vertebra

fused vertebrae the sacrum coccyx
Fused Vertebrae: The sacrum & coccyx
  • Sacrum - Union of 5 vertebrae (S1 - S5) – completely fused by age 30
    • median sacral crest = spinous processes
    • sacral ala = fused transverse processes
    • sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus
  • Coccyx = Union of 4 vertebrae (Co1 - Co4) – completely fused by age 30
sternum rib cage
Sternum & Rib Cage
  • sternum is comprised of three portions:
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xiphoid process
  • 12 pairs of ribs
  • -three kinds of ribs:
    • 1. True – separate & direct connection to the sternum via costal cartilage
    • 2. False – no direct connection to the sternum – joined via a composite piece of costal cartilage
    • 3. Floating – no connection to the sternum
sternum rib cage46
Sternum & Rib Cage
  • several muscles and muscle groups either originate from the sternum and/or ribcage (or costal cartilages) or insert onto these structures
    • sternum:
      • sternocleidomastoid
      • sternohyoid & sternothryoid – depresses hyoid bone and larynx
    • ribcage:
      • intercostals – external and internal
      • serratus anterior & posterior
      • numerous muscles of the vertebral column
      • pectoralis major & minor
      • 4 muscles of the abdominal wall
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Bones of upper and lower limbs
  • Pectoral and pelvic girdles
    • Connect limbs to trunk
shoulder girdle
Shoulder Girdle
  • Includes
    • Scapula (shoulder blade)
    • Clavicle (collarbone)
  • Squares shoulders
  • Helps move the upper limb
  • Provides a base for muscle attachment
  • S-shaped bone
  • Connects manubrium of sternum to the acromion process of scapula
  • Only direct connection between pectoral girdle and axial skeleton
the scapula
The Scapula
  • Medial or vertebral border is the insertion point for the rhomboids, levator scapulae & serratus anterior
  • Two processes attached to ligaments and tendons
    • Coracoid process – e.g insertion for pectoralis minor, origin of biceps
    • Acromion process – e.g. origin of the deltoid
      • continues on to become the scapular spine
  • Articulates at the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumoral joint
  • Articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint
the humerus
The Humerus
  • articulates with glenoid cavity
  • articular capsule attaches at anatomical neck
  • trochlea and capitulum form joints with the ulna and radius = elbow joint
  • numerous muscles insert at greater and lesser tubercle
    • greater tubercle – insertion of 3 rotator cuff muscles + pectoralis major
    • lesser tubercle – insertion for the other rotator cuff
  • intertubercular groove – insertion for latissimus dorsi
  • deltoid tuberosity
    • insertion of deltoid muscle
the radius and ulna
The Radius and Ulna
  • Parallel bones of the forearm
  • radial tuberosity – insertion point for the biceps brachii
  • Olecranon process of ulna articulates with olecranon fossa of humerus
    • olecranon process is a major point of muscle attachment for the triceps
  • Coronoid fossa of humerus accommodates coronoid process of ulna
    • insertion for the major forearm flexor = brachialis
carpal bones
Carpal Bones
  • 8 wrist bones
  • Two rows, proximal and distal
    • scaphoid bone, lunate bone, triquetrum, pisiform
    • trapezium, trapezoid bone, capitate bone, hamate bone
    • scaphoid = most commonly injured carpal bone
      • fall on the outstretched hand – fracture into two separate pieces (tears blood vessels)

Some lovers try positions that they can’t handle


Metacarpal Bones

  • Articulate with distal carpals
  • Distally articulate with phalanges
    • Fingers have three phalanges
    • Pollex has two
the pelvic girdle
The Pelvic Girdle
  • The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae.
  • ossa coxae
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  • Ilium
    • Largest hip bone
    • Acetabulum
    • Accommodates head of femur
    • Fused to ischium posteriorly
    • Fused to pubis anteriorly
    • Pubic symphysis limits movement
the pelvic girdle58
The Pelvic Girdle
  • The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae united at the pubic symphysis anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly
    • union between pelvis and sacrum = sacroiliac joint
  • os coxa
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
the pelvic girdle59
The Pelvic Girdle
  • Pubis
    • “pubic bone”
    • superior & inferior ramus
      • rami connect to the ilium and ischium
      • surrounds the obturator foramen
    • pubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
      • known as an amphithrotic (slightly movable) joint
  • Ilium
    • Largest hip bone
    • Fused to ischium posteriorly
    • Fused to pubis anteriorly via the superior ramus
  • Ischium
    • “sit bones”
    • ischial spine & tuberosity
      • ischial tuberosity – site of origin for hamstrings and adductor magnus
    • lesser sciatic notch
    • ramus unites with the pubis

iliac fossa for origin of iliacus

  • iliac crest for origin of gluteus maximus and medius
  • anterior gluteal line for origin of gluteus medius
  • anterior superior iliac spine for origin of sartorius
  • anterior inferior iliac spine for origin of rectus femoris
  • greater sciatic notch for passage of sciatic nerve
  • inferior pubic ramus for origin of iliacus (hip flexor), gracilis, adductor brevis and magnus (hip adductors)
  • superior pubic ramus for origin of the hip adductor pectineus
  • pubic crest/tubercle for origin of adductor longus
female vs male pelvis
Female vs. Male Pelvis
  • Smoother
  • Lighter
  • Less prominent markings
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Less sacral curvature
  • Wider more circular pelvic inlet
  • Broader pubic angle
female pelvis
Female Pelvis
  • Smoother
  • Lighter
  • Less prominent markings
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Less sacral curvature
  • Wider more circular pelvic inlet
  • Broader pubic angle
the femur
The Femur
  • Longest bone in body
    • takes 5 months to completely replace
  • Rounded head on an anatomical neck
    • fits into the acetabulum of the pelvis to form the hip joint
  • Distal medial and lateral condyles articulate with tibia – to form the knee joint
    • knee joint is a hinge joint capable of one plane of motion

Large tendon attachments to the trochanters and the linea aspera

  • Linea aspera
    • roughened line on the back of the femur
    • origin for the hamstring biceps femoris (short head) & the knee extensor vastus medialis
    • also the insertion point for adductor longus, brevis and magnus
  • Greater and lesser trochanters
    • greater trochanter – origin of vastus lateralis (knee extensor) & the insertion point for the hip abductors: gluteus medius and minimus and piriformis
    • lesser trochanter – insertion for iliopsoas (hip flexor)
the patella
The Patella
  • Large sesmoid bone
  • Forms within tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle group
  • Patellar ligament attaches to tibial tuberosity
  • This sesamoid bone forms within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris.
the tibia
The Tibia
  • Largest medial bone of leg
  • Tibial tuberosity
  • Anterior margin
  • Interosseous border
  • Medial malleolus
    • Medial support for talocrural joint
the tibia fibula
The Tibia & Fibula
  • Tibia - largest medial bone of leg
  • condyles of the tibia form the knee joint with the condyles of the femur
  • Tibial tuberosity – site of insertion for the quadriceps femoris
  • Anterior margin or crest – known as the “shin bone”
  • Medial malleolus
    • medial support for talocrural joint of the ankle
the tarsus
The Tarsus
  • Seven tarsal bones
    • calcaneus = heel
      • weight of body transferred through this bone!
    • talus – forms the ankle joint with the tibia and fibula
      • ligaments from the two malleolus processes reinforce this joint
    • navicular
    • cuboid
    • 3 cuneiform bones

weight passing through the calcaneus then passes along to 5 metatarsal bones

    • -Longitudinal arch
    • -Transverse arch

Supportive Connective tissues: types

-cartilage & bone

1. Cartilage:

-cells = chondrocytes

-matrix = collagen fibers embedded in a gel-like ground-substance

-collagen type II

-ground substance - water + proteoglycans

-proteoglycans - protein + sugars

e.g. chondroitin sulfate


-functions in support, attachment, protection

-in developing child - model for future bone (endochondral bone)

-avascular tissue - produces anti-angiogenic chemicals (inhibits growth of blood vessels)

-therefore diffusion is the main mode of transport



-3 types: 1) Hyaline - most common

- “glass”

- ends of bones, within joints (synovial, articular),

- end of nose, supports respiratory passages


2. Elastic - flexible cartilage

- external ears and parts of larynx


3. Fibrocartilage - very tough -> more collagen fibers

- shock absorber

e.g. intervertebral discs of the knee

  • Wherever two bones interact
  • Function depends on structure
  • can classify according to:
    • structure – i.e. what they are made of
        • fibrous
        • cartilagenous
        • synovial

B. function - movement

    • No movement = synarthrotic
    • Slight movement = amphithrotic
    • Extensive movement = diathrotic

Fibrous joints

  • lack a synovial cavity
  • articulating surfaces are held very closely by fibrous connective tissue
  • three types

1. Sutures: composed a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue

-unites the bones of the skull

e.g. coronal suture

-interlocking edges of the suture gives them strength

-immovable joint

2. Syndesmoses: greater distance between articular edges

-more fibrous connective tissue

-connective tissue arranged as a sheet (interosseous membrane)

or bundle (ligament)

-slightly movable

e.g. tibiofibular ligament connecting the tibiofibular joint

e.g. interosseous membranes between the radius and ulna, tibia and fibula

3. Gomphoses: cone shaped peg fits into a socket

e.g articulations of the roots of the teeth with the jaw

-held by the periodontal ligament



Cartilagenous joints

  • lacks a synovial cavity
  • allows little or no movement
  • articulating bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

1. Synchondroses: connecting material is hyaline cartilage

e.g. epiphyseal plate of a growing bone


2. Symphyses: ends of bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but are connected

by a flat disc of fibrocartilage

-all symphyses occur at the midline of the body

e.g. pubic symphysis - connects two ends of the pubis bones

e.g. intervertebral joints between the bodies of 2 vertebrae

-slightly movable


Synovial joints

  • presence of a synovial cavity between the articulating bone surfaces
  • freely movable
  • lined with hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
  • filled with a fluid called synovial fluid
  • surrounded by a fibrous capsule – inside is lined with a synovial membrane
  • movement is along three possible axes:
    • Monaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Triaxial or Multiaxial
  • 6 subtypes:
    • 1. planar/gliding
    • 2. hinge
    • 3. pivot
    • 4. condyloid
    • 5. saddle
    • 6. ball and socket
synovial joints general anatomy
Synovial Joints: General Anatomy
  • Articular/Joint capsule encloses joint cavity
    • continuous with periosteum of the bones of the joint
    • lined by a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
  • Synovial fluid = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages
  • Articular cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces
  • Articular discs and menisci
    • found in the jaw, wrist, sternoclavicular and knee joints
    • absorbs shock, guides bone movements and distributes forces
  • Tendon attaches muscle to bone
  • Ligament attaches bone to bone

Synovial joint subtypes:

  • 1. Planar/Gliding joints : articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved
  • -permit side to side or back and forth gliding motions
  • -non axial - no motions around an axis
  • -some books say they are limited monaxial joints
  • e.g. intercarpal joints of the wrist bones
  • e.g. intertarsal joints of the ankle bones
  • 2. Hinge joints: convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface
  • -produces an angular, open and close movement
  • -movement is in one plane of motion = monaxial
  • 3. Pivot joints: rounded or pointed end of one bone fits into a ring of another
  • -also monaxial
  • -rotates around a longitudinal axis
  • e.g atlas-axis joint - first 2 vertebrae

4. Condyloid joints: or ellipsoid joints

-convex oval shaped projection of one bone fits into the

oval-shaped depression of another bone

-biaxial = two planes of motion

e.g. metacarpals and proximal phalanges

e.g. metatarsals and proximal phalanges

e.g. atlanto-occipital joint

5. Saddle joints: articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped

-modified condyloid joint

-biaxial – but more moveable than condyloid joints

e.g. thumb metacarpal and trapezium carpal bone

= trapeziometacarpal joint

6. Ball and socket joints: ball-like end of one bone fits into a

cuplike depression of another

-multiaxial - several planes of motion

e.g. hip joint, shoulder joint

three categories based on range of motion
Three categories based on range of motion
  • Synarthroses
    • Immovable joints
  • Amphiarthroses
    • Slightly movable joints
  • Diarthroses
    • Freely movable joints
  • Bony edges may interlock
  • Sutures
    • Between skull bones
  • Gomphosis
    • Between teeth and jaw
  • Synchondrosis
    • Epiphyseal plate
  • Synostosis
    • Fused bones
  • Limited movements
  • Syndesmosis
    • Collagen fibers connect bones
      • e.g. tibiofibular joint
  • Symphysis
    • Bones are separated by cartilage pad
      • e.g. pubic symphysis
diarthroses synovial joints
Diarthroses (synovial joints)
  • Wide range of movement
  • Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage
  • Lubricated by synovial fluid
  • Enclosed with joint capsule
  • Accessory structures
    • Menisci
    • Fat pads
    • Ligaments
    • Tendons
    • Bursae
    • Tendon sheaths
joint description
Joint Description
  • for the diathrotic joints – there are a number of axes along which movement is permitted
    • Monaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Triaxial
joints range of motion
Joints: Range of Motion
  • Degrees through which a joint can move
  • Determined by
    • structure of the articular surfaces
    • strength and tautness of ligaments, tendons and capsule
      • stretching of ligaments increases range of motion
      • double-jointed people have long or slack ligaments
    • action of the muscles and tendons
      • nervous system monitors joint position and muscle tone

Rotational Movements

  • Movement on longitudinal axis
    • rotation of trunk, thigh, head or arm
  • Medial rotation turns the bone inwards
  • Lateral rotation turns the bone outwards
rotational movements
Rotational Movements
  • Medial and lateral rotation of the hand – called pronation & supination
  • in the foot we call it eversion and inversion
special movement terms
Special movement terms
  • Pronation/Supination
  • Eversion/Inversion
  • Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion
  • Lateral flexion
  • Opposition
  • Protraction/retraction
  • Elevation/depression
movements of head and trunk

Special movement terms

Movements of Head and Trunk
  • Flexion, hyperextension and lateral flexion of vertebral column
movements of mandible

Special movement terms

Movements of Mandible
  • Lateral excursion = sideways movement
  • Medial excursion = movement back to the midline
    • side-to-side grinding during chewing
  • Protraction – retraction of mandible
movement of hand and digits

Special movement terms

Movement of Hand and Digits
  • Radial and ulnar flexion
  • Abduction of fingers and thumb
  • Opposition is movement of the thumb to approach or touch the fingertips
  • Reposition is movement back to the anatomical position
movements of the foot

Special movement terms

Movements of the Foot
  • Dorsiflexion is raising of the toes as when you swing the foot forward to take a step (heel strike)
  • Plantarflexion is extension of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe
  • Inversion is a movement in which the soles are turned medially
  • Eversion is a turning of the soles to face laterally
describing dynamic motion of diathrotic joints
Describing dynamic motion of diathrotic joints
  • Linear motion/Gliding
    • Back and forth or side to side
  • Angular motion
    • Angle between shaft and surface changes
    • flexion, extension, lateral extension, hyperextension

abduction, adduction and circumduction

  • Rotation
    • Spinning of shaft on longitudinal axis
    • pivot and ball and socket joints
    • rotation inward - medial rotation
    • rotation outward - lateral rotation
the temporomandibular joint
The Temporomandibular Joint
  • Mandibular fossa of temporal bone
  • Condylar processes of mandible
  • Thick articular disc
  • Supporting structures
    • Dense capsule
    • Temporomandibular ligament
    • Stylomandibular ligament
    • Sphenomandibular ligament
  • Loose hinge joint
intervertebral articulations
Intervertebral Articulations
  • Articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
  • Symphyseal joints at bodies
  • Ligaments bind vertebrae
  • Permits flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation

Intervertebral discs separate

    • -outer fibrous ring of fibrocartilage
    • called the annulus fibrosis
    • -inner, soft, pulpy elastic material
    • called the nucleus pulposus
the sternoclavicular joint
The Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Articular disc
  • Supports include
    • -Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments
    • -Intercalvicular ligaments
    • -Costoclavicular ligaments
  • Gliding joint
  • Sternal end of clavicle and manubruim of sternum
the shoulder joint
The Shoulder Joint
  • Glenohumoral joint
    • Glenoid fossa and head of humerus
  • Loose shallow joint
  • Greatest range of motion

Strength and stability are sacrificed

  • Supported by ligaments and muscles
  • Many bursae
the elbow joint
The Elbow Joint
  • Hinge joint
  • Flexion and extension
  • Includes humeroulnar joint and humeroradial joint
  • Supported by
    • Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments
    • Annular ligaments
the joints of the wrist
The Joints of the Wrist
  • Three joints
    • Distal radioulnar joint
      • Pivot diarthrosis
      • Pronation / suppination
    • Radiocarpal joint
      • Ellipsoidal articulation
      • Flexion/extension
      • Adduction/ abduction
      • circumduction
    • Intercarpal joints
      • Gliding joints
joints of the hand
Joints of the Hand
  • Intercarpal joints
    • Gliding
  • Carpometacarpal joint of thumb
    • Saddle
  • Carpometacarpal joints
    • Gliding
  • Metacarpophalangeal joints
    • Ellipsoidal
  • Interphalangeal joints
    • Hinge
the hip joint
The Hip Joint
  • Ball and socket diarthrosis
  • Acetabulum of os coxae and head of femur
  • Flexion / extension
  • Adduction / abduction
  • Circumduction
  • Rotation
  • Iliofemoral ligament
  • Pubofemoral ligament
  • Ischiofemoral ligament
  • Transverse acetabular ligaments
  • Ligament of femoral head
the knee joint
The Knee Joint
  • Complex hinge joint
  • Resembles three separate joints
    • Medial condyles of femur and tibia
    • Lateral condyles of femur and tibia
    • Patella and patellar surface of femur
  • Flexion / extension
  • Limited rotation
  • Support is not a single unified capsule
    • Not a single fluid cavity
  • Fibrocartilage pads
  • Medial and lateral menisci
  • Fat pads
  • Seven major ligaments bind knee joint
    • Popliteals
    • Patellar
    • Anterior and posterior cruciates
    • Tibial and fibular collaterals
the joints of the ankle and foot
The Joints of the Ankle and Foot
  • Hinge joint
  • Inferior surface of tibia, lateral malleolus of fibula, trochlea of talus
    • Primary joint is tibiotalar
  • Stabilizing ligaments
  • Dorsiflexion / plantar flexion
  • Intertarsal joints
    • Gliding
  • Tarsometatarsal joints
    • Gliding
  • Metatarsophalangeal
    • Gliding
  • Interphanageal
    • Hinge