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Anatomy of Skeletal Elements. The Musculoskeletal system. 206 bones grouped into the axial and appendicular skeletons 650 muscles approximately 40% of your body weight also divided into an axial and an appendicular division. Classification of Bones.

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the musculoskeletal system
The Musculoskeletal system
  • 206 bones
      • grouped into the axial and appendicular skeletons
  • 650 muscles
    • approximately 40% of your body weight
    • also divided into an axial and an appendicular division
classification of bones
Classification of Bones
  • 6 types - based on anatomical classification
    • Long bones = greater length than width
    • Short bones = cube-shaped, spongy bone except at surface
    • Flat bones = two parallel plates of compact bone sandwiching spongy bone layer
slide4

Irregular bones = cannot be grouped

  • Sesamoid bones = develop in tendons where there is considerable friction, tension and stress
  • Sutural bones = located within joints between cranial bones
bone markings surface features
Bone Markings (surface features)
  • Used to identify specific elevations, depressions, and openings of bones
  • Bone markings provide distinct and characteristic landmarks for orientation and identification of bones and associated structures.
bony processes
Bony Processes
  • Depressions and openings
    • Fissure – narrow slit
    • Foramen – hole for nerves, blood vessels
    • Fossa – cuplike depression
    • Sulcus – furrow on a bone surface, contains a nerve or blood vessel
    • Meatus – tubelike opening
  • Processes – projection or outgrowth on bone for attachment
    • Condyle – smoothened process at end of bone, forms a joint
    • Facet – smooth flat surface, forms a joint
    • Head – rounded condyle on a neck, forms a joint
    • Crest – prominent ridge or projection, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Epicondyle – projection above a condyle, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Line – long, narrow ridge (less prominent than a crest), for attachment of connective tissues
    • Spinous process – sharp, slender projection, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Trochanter – process of the femur, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Tubercle – process of the humerus, for attachment of connective tissues
    • Tuberosity – roughening on a bone surface, for attachment of connective tissues
skeletal system includes
Skeletal system includes
  • Axial division
    • Skull and associated bones
      • Auditory ossicles
      • Hyoid bones
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
      • Ribs sternum
  • Appendicular division
    • -Pectoral girdle
    • -Pelvic girdle
the axial skeleton
The Axial Skeleton
  • Axial division
    • Skull and associated bones
      • Auditory ossicles
      • Hyoid bones
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
      • Ribs sternum
slide11

The Adult Skull

  • skull = 22 bones
  • cranium = 8 bones: frontals, occipital, temporals, parietals, sphenoid and ethmoid
  • facial bones = 14 bones: nasals, maxillae, zygomatics, mandible, lacrimals, palatines,
  • inferior nasal conchae, vomer
  • skull forms a larger cranial cavity
  • -also forms the nasal cavity, the orbits, paranasal sinuses
  • mandible and auditory ossicles are the only movable skull bones
  • skull contains many holes for the passage of nerves and vessels = foramen/foramina
  • cranial bones also: attach to membranes called meninges
  • -stabilize positions of the brain, blood vessels
  • -outer surface provides large areas for muscle attachment that
  • move the head or provide facial expressions
slide12

black eyes: superior to the supraorbital ridge is a sharp ridge

-a blow will fracture the bone and result in bleeding & inflammation

cleft lip and palate: palatine processes usually unite at embryonic weeks 10-12

-failure results in a hole = cleft palate

-the palatine bones themselves may fail to fuse

-a split in the upper lip may also result = cleft lip

-complications: speech, swallowing, ear infections -> hearing loss

-closure of cleft lip - few weeks after birth

-closure of cleft palate - 12 to 18 months

TMJ: associated with the temperomandibular joint

-dull pain around ear, tenderness of jaw, difficulty chewing, headache

-results from grinding of teeth and clenching of jaws

-no permanent treatments

deviated nasal septum: nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left

halves

-three components: vomer, septal cartilage & perpendicular plate of the

ethmoid

-deviation results in a later deflection of the septum

-severe deviation may affect breathin

sutures
Sutures
  • Immovable joints
  • Form boundaries between skull bones
  • Four main sutures
    • Coronal
    • Sagittal
    • Lambdoid
    • Squamous
    • PLUS lots of smaller sutures
      • e.g Frontonasal
      • e.g. Temperozygomatic
skull posterior view
Skull: Posterior View
  • Occipital bone
      • Part of the base of the skull
      • Surrounds the foramen magnum
      • Forms part of the jugular foramen

Mastoid notch

slide16

Parietal bones

    • -Part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium
slide17

Temporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid

Frontal process of zygomatic

Squamous

portion

Lacrimal bone

Petrous

portion

Tympanic

portion

Maxillary process

of zygomatic

Articular

Tubercle

  • Temporal bone
    • -Forms wall of jugular foramen
    • -Petrous part houses tympanic cavity
      • Auditory ossicles transmit sound to inner ear
slide18

Supraorbital ridge

Or margin

glabella

Internasal suture

  • Frontal bone
    • Forms the forehead
    • Roof of the orbit

Frontal process of maxilla

Zygomatic process

of maxilla

the orbit
The Orbit
  • Orbital complex
    • Bony recess that holds the eye
    • Seven bones
      • Frontal bone
      • Lacrimal bones
      • Palatine bones
      • Zygomatic bones
      • Ethmoid
      • Sphenoid
      • Maxillae
skull inferior view
Skull: Inferior View

Basilar

Portion

Petrous

portion

Condylar fossa

Condylar foramen

may be present

figure 6 4 sectional anatomy of the skull part i

Skull: Interior View

Figure 6.4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull, Part I

Tuberculum sellae

Sella

Turcica

Cerebral surface of

Greater wing of sphenoid

Hypophyseal fossa

Dorsum sella

Lesser wing of sphenoid

Foramen

Rotundum

slide23
Sphenoid bone
    • Contributes to floor of cranium
    • Bridges cranial and facial bones
    • Optic canal allows passage of optic nerve
    • Pterygoid processes sites of muscle attachment
slide24
Ethmoid Bone
    • Irregularly shaped bone
    • Forms part of orbital wall
    • Forms roof of nasal cavity
    • Cribriform plate
    • Perforations for olfactory nerve
    • Perpendicular plate
    • Nasal septum
slide26

Cranial Fossae

  • Depressions in cranial floor
  • Anterior cranial fossa
    • Frontal bone, ethmoid, lesser wings of sphenoid
  • Middle cranial fossa
    • Sphenoid, temporal bones, parietal bones
  • Posterior cranial fossa
    • Occipital bone, temporal bones, parietal bones
bones of the face
Bones of the Face
  • Maxillae
    • Paired bone
    • Largest facial bones
    • Form upper jaw
slide28
Mandible
    • Entire lower jaw
    • Articulates with temporal bone
    • Temporomandibular joint
slide29
Nasal bones
    • Paired bones
    • Articulate with frontal bone
    • Extend to superior border of external nares
  • Vomer
    • Forms inferior portion of nasal septum
    • Articulates with maxillae and palatines
  • Inferior nasal concha
    • Located on each side of nasal septum
    • Increase epithelial surface
    • Create turbulence in inspired air
  • Zygomatic bone
    • Temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone
    • Forms zygomatic arch
  • Lacrimal bones
    • Smallest bones in skull
    • Forms nasolacrimal groove leading to nasolacrimal canal
    • Delivers tears to nasal cavity
slide30
Palatine bones
    • Small
    • L-shaped
    • Form posterior portion of hard palate
    • Contribute to floor of orbit
the nasal complex
The Nasal Complex
  • Bones and cartilage that enclose the nasal cavity
  • Paranasal sinuses
    • Hollow airways
    • Frontal bones, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillae
the hyoid bone
The Hyoid Bone
  • Suspended by stylohyoid ligaments
  • Consists of a body, greater horns and lesser horns
  • Base for muscles of the tongue and larynx
fontanels
Fontanels
  • Fibrous connections
  • Permit infant skulls to pass through birth canal
  • Permit the skulls of infants and children to continue growth
  • The flat bones in the infant skull are separated by fontanels, which allow for cranial expansion and the distortion of the skull during birth.
adult vertebral column
Adult Vertebral Column
  • strong, flexible rod
    • average male = 71 cm (28 inches)
    • average female – 61 cm (24 inches)
  • capable of moving
    • anteriorly
    • posteriorly
    • laterally
    • also rotation
  • supports the head
  • encloses and protects the spinal cord
  • allows for the exit of 31 pairs of spinal nerves – through intervertebral foramina
adult vertebral column39
Adult Vertebral Column
  • 26 vertebrae
    • 24 individual vertebrae
    • Sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
    • Coccyx – 4 fused vertebrae
  • Seven cervical vertebrae
  • Twelve thoracic vertebrae
  • Five lumbar vertebrae
adult vertebral column40
Adult Vertebral Column
  • vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs
    • discs of fibrocartilage made up of an outer ring and a softer inner region
    • found between C1 and C2 and all the way down to between L5 and the sacrum
    • form the joints of the vertebral column
    • absorb shock – flatten, broaden and bulge outward
    • weakening in the outer ring can allow the herniation of the inner material
spinal curvature
Spinal Curvature
  • Four curvatures: increase the strength of the column
    • Thoracic (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
    • Sacral (primary) – forms fetally and retain the curve of the fetus
    • Cervical (secondary) – forms when the baby holds its head erect
    • Lumbar (secondary) – forms upon walking
slide42

Every vertebrae has the following:

    • 1. body – weight bearing part of the vertebra
      • separated by the discs
    • 2. vertebral arch – surrounds the spinal cord
      • surrounds a hole called a vertebral foramen
    • 3. processes – seven of them
      • 1. Spinous (1) – muscle attachment
      • 2. Transverse (2) – muscle attachment
      • 3. Superior articular (2) – forms joint with upper vertebra
      • 4. Inferior articular (2) – forms joint with lower vertebra

Cervical Vertebra

fused vertebrae the sacrum coccyx
Fused Vertebrae: The sacrum & coccyx
  • Sacrum - Union of 5 vertebrae (S1 - S5) – completely fused by age 30
    • median sacral crest = spinous processes
    • sacral ala = fused transverse processes
    • sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus
  • Coccyx = Union of 4 vertebrae (Co1 - Co4) – completely fused by age 30
sternum rib cage
Sternum & Rib Cage
  • sternum is comprised of three portions:
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xiphoid process
  • 12 pairs of ribs
  • -three kinds of ribs:
    • 1. True – separate & direct connection to the sternum via costal cartilage
    • 2. False – no direct connection to the sternum – joined via a composite piece of costal cartilage
    • 3. Floating – no connection to the sternum
sternum rib cage46
Sternum & Rib Cage
  • several muscles and muscle groups either originate from the sternum and/or ribcage (or costal cartilages) or insert onto these structures
    • sternum:
      • sternocleidomastoid
      • sternohyoid & sternothryoid – depresses hyoid bone and larynx
    • ribcage:
      • intercostals – external and internal
      • serratus anterior & posterior
      • numerous muscles of the vertebral column
      • pectoralis major & minor
      • 4 muscles of the abdominal wall
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Bones of upper and lower limbs
  • Pectoral and pelvic girdles
    • Connect limbs to trunk
shoulder girdle
Shoulder Girdle
  • Includes
    • Scapula (shoulder blade)
    • Clavicle (collarbone)
  • Squares shoulders
  • Helps move the upper limb
  • Provides a base for muscle attachment
clavicle
Clavicle
  • S-shaped bone
  • Connects manubrium of sternum to the acromion process of scapula
  • Only direct connection between pectoral girdle and axial skeleton
the scapula
The Scapula
  • Medial or vertebral border is the insertion point for the rhomboids, levator scapulae & serratus anterior
  • Two processes attached to ligaments and tendons
    • Coracoid process – e.g insertion for pectoralis minor, origin of biceps
    • Acromion process – e.g. origin of the deltoid
      • continues on to become the scapular spine
  • Articulates at the round head of the humerus to form the glenohumoral joint
  • Articulates with clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint
the humerus
The Humerus
  • articulates with glenoid cavity
  • articular capsule attaches at anatomical neck
  • trochlea and capitulum form joints with the ulna and radius = elbow joint
  • numerous muscles insert at greater and lesser tubercle
    • greater tubercle – insertion of 3 rotator cuff muscles + pectoralis major
    • lesser tubercle – insertion for the other rotator cuff
  • intertubercular groove – insertion for latissimus dorsi
  • deltoid tuberosity
    • insertion of deltoid muscle
the radius and ulna
The Radius and Ulna
  • Parallel bones of the forearm
  • radial tuberosity – insertion point for the biceps brachii
  • Olecranon process of ulna articulates with olecranon fossa of humerus
    • olecranon process is a major point of muscle attachment for the triceps
  • Coronoid fossa of humerus accommodates coronoid process of ulna
    • insertion for the major forearm flexor = brachialis
carpal bones
Carpal Bones
  • 8 wrist bones
  • Two rows, proximal and distal
    • scaphoid bone, lunate bone, triquetrum, pisiform
    • trapezium, trapezoid bone, capitate bone, hamate bone
    • scaphoid = most commonly injured carpal bone
      • fall on the outstretched hand – fracture into two separate pieces (tears blood vessels)

Some lovers try positions that they can’t handle

slide56

Metacarpal Bones

  • Articulate with distal carpals
  • Distally articulate with phalanges
    • Fingers have three phalanges
    • Pollex has two
the pelvic girdle
The Pelvic Girdle
  • The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae.
  • ossa coxae
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  • Ilium
    • Largest hip bone
    • Acetabulum
    • Accommodates head of femur
    • Fused to ischium posteriorly
    • Fused to pubis anteriorly
    • Pubic symphysis limits movement
the pelvic girdle58
The Pelvic Girdle
  • The pelvic girdle consists of the two ossa coxae united at the pubic symphysis anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly
    • union between pelvis and sacrum = sacroiliac joint
  • os coxa
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
the pelvic girdle59
The Pelvic Girdle
  • Pubis
    • “pubic bone”
    • superior & inferior ramus
      • rami connect to the ilium and ischium
      • surrounds the obturator foramen
    • pubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
      • known as an amphithrotic (slightly movable) joint
  • Ilium
    • Largest hip bone
    • Fused to ischium posteriorly
    • Fused to pubis anteriorly via the superior ramus
  • Ischium
    • “sit bones”
    • ischial spine & tuberosity
      • ischial tuberosity – site of origin for hamstrings and adductor magnus
    • lesser sciatic notch
    • ramus unites with the pubis
slide60

iliac fossa for origin of iliacus

  • iliac crest for origin of gluteus maximus and medius
  • anterior gluteal line for origin of gluteus medius
  • anterior superior iliac spine for origin of sartorius
  • anterior inferior iliac spine for origin of rectus femoris
  • greater sciatic notch for passage of sciatic nerve
  • inferior pubic ramus for origin of iliacus (hip flexor), gracilis, adductor brevis and magnus (hip adductors)
  • superior pubic ramus for origin of the hip adductor pectineus
  • pubic crest/tubercle for origin of adductor longus
female vs male pelvis
Female vs. Male Pelvis
  • Smoother
  • Lighter
  • Less prominent markings
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Less sacral curvature
  • Wider more circular pelvic inlet
  • Broader pubic angle
female pelvis
Female Pelvis
  • Smoother
  • Lighter
  • Less prominent markings
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Less sacral curvature
  • Wider more circular pelvic inlet
  • Broader pubic angle
the femur
The Femur
  • Longest bone in body
    • takes 5 months to completely replace
  • Rounded head on an anatomical neck
    • fits into the acetabulum of the pelvis to form the hip joint
  • Distal medial and lateral condyles articulate with tibia – to form the knee joint
    • knee joint is a hinge joint capable of one plane of motion
slide66

Large tendon attachments to the trochanters and the linea aspera

  • Linea aspera
    • roughened line on the back of the femur
    • origin for the hamstring biceps femoris (short head) & the knee extensor vastus medialis
    • also the insertion point for adductor longus, brevis and magnus
  • Greater and lesser trochanters
    • greater trochanter – origin of vastus lateralis (knee extensor) & the insertion point for the hip abductors: gluteus medius and minimus and piriformis
    • lesser trochanter – insertion for iliopsoas (hip flexor)
the patella
The Patella
  • Large sesmoid bone
  • Forms within tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle group
  • Patellar ligament attaches to tibial tuberosity
  • This sesamoid bone forms within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris.
the tibia
The Tibia
  • Largest medial bone of leg
  • Tibial tuberosity
  • Anterior margin
  • Interosseous border
  • Medial malleolus
    • Medial support for talocrural joint
the tibia fibula
The Tibia & Fibula
  • Tibia - largest medial bone of leg
  • condyles of the tibia form the knee joint with the condyles of the femur
  • Tibial tuberosity – site of insertion for the quadriceps femoris
  • Anterior margin or crest – known as the “shin bone”
  • Medial malleolus
    • medial support for talocrural joint of the ankle
the tarsus
The Tarsus
  • Seven tarsal bones
    • calcaneus = heel
      • weight of body transferred through this bone!
    • talus – forms the ankle joint with the tibia and fibula
      • ligaments from the two malleolus processes reinforce this joint
    • navicular
    • cuboid
    • 3 cuneiform bones
slide72

weight passing through the calcaneus then passes along to 5 metatarsal bones

    • -Longitudinal arch
    • -Transverse arch
slide74

Supportive Connective tissues: types

-cartilage & bone

1. Cartilage:

-cells = chondrocytes

-matrix = collagen fibers embedded in a gel-like ground-substance

-collagen type II

-ground substance - water + proteoglycans

-proteoglycans - protein + sugars

e.g. chondroitin sulfate

glucosamine

-functions in support, attachment, protection

-in developing child - model for future bone (endochondral bone)

-avascular tissue - produces anti-angiogenic chemicals (inhibits growth of blood vessels)

-therefore diffusion is the main mode of transport

Proteoglycan

slide75

-3 types: 1) Hyaline - most common

- “glass”

- ends of bones, within joints (synovial, articular),

- end of nose, supports respiratory passages

slide76

2. Elastic - flexible cartilage

- external ears and parts of larynx

slide77

3. Fibrocartilage - very tough -> more collagen fibers

- shock absorber

e.g. intervertebral discs of the knee

articulations
Articulations
  • Wherever two bones interact
  • Function depends on structure
  • can classify according to:
    • structure – i.e. what they are made of
        • fibrous
        • cartilagenous
        • synovial

B. function - movement

    • No movement = synarthrotic
    • Slight movement = amphithrotic
    • Extensive movement = diathrotic
slide80

Fibrous joints

  • lack a synovial cavity
  • articulating surfaces are held very closely by fibrous connective tissue
  • three types

1. Sutures: composed a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue

-unites the bones of the skull

e.g. coronal suture

-interlocking edges of the suture gives them strength

-immovable joint

2. Syndesmoses: greater distance between articular edges

-more fibrous connective tissue

-connective tissue arranged as a sheet (interosseous membrane)

or bundle (ligament)

-slightly movable

e.g. tibiofibular ligament connecting the tibiofibular joint

e.g. interosseous membranes between the radius and ulna, tibia and fibula

3. Gomphoses: cone shaped peg fits into a socket

e.g articulations of the roots of the teeth with the jaw

-held by the periodontal ligament

-immovable

slide81

Cartilagenous joints

  • lacks a synovial cavity
  • allows little or no movement
  • articulating bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

1. Synchondroses: connecting material is hyaline cartilage

e.g. epiphyseal plate of a growing bone

-immovable

2. Symphyses: ends of bones are covered with hyaline cartilage but are connected

by a flat disc of fibrocartilage

-all symphyses occur at the midline of the body

e.g. pubic symphysis - connects two ends of the pubis bones

e.g. intervertebral joints between the bodies of 2 vertebrae

-slightly movable

slide82

Synovial joints

  • presence of a synovial cavity between the articulating bone surfaces
  • freely movable
  • lined with hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
  • filled with a fluid called synovial fluid
  • surrounded by a fibrous capsule – inside is lined with a synovial membrane
  • movement is along three possible axes:
    • Monaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Triaxial or Multiaxial
  • 6 subtypes:
    • 1. planar/gliding
    • 2. hinge
    • 3. pivot
    • 4. condyloid
    • 5. saddle
    • 6. ball and socket
synovial joints general anatomy
Synovial Joints: General Anatomy
  • Articular/Joint capsule encloses joint cavity
    • continuous with periosteum of the bones of the joint
    • lined by a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
  • Synovial fluid = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages
  • Articular cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces
  • Articular discs and menisci
    • found in the jaw, wrist, sternoclavicular and knee joints
    • absorbs shock, guides bone movements and distributes forces
  • Tendon attaches muscle to bone
  • Ligament attaches bone to bone
slide84

Synovial joint subtypes:

  • 1. Planar/Gliding joints : articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved
  • -permit side to side or back and forth gliding motions
  • -non axial - no motions around an axis
  • -some books say they are limited monaxial joints
  • e.g. intercarpal joints of the wrist bones
  • e.g. intertarsal joints of the ankle bones
  • 2. Hinge joints: convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface
  • -produces an angular, open and close movement
  • -movement is in one plane of motion = monaxial
  • 3. Pivot joints: rounded or pointed end of one bone fits into a ring of another
  • -also monaxial
  • -rotates around a longitudinal axis
  • e.g atlas-axis joint - first 2 vertebrae
slide85

4. Condyloid joints: or ellipsoid joints

-convex oval shaped projection of one bone fits into the

oval-shaped depression of another bone

-biaxial = two planes of motion

e.g. metacarpals and proximal phalanges

e.g. metatarsals and proximal phalanges

e.g. atlanto-occipital joint

5. Saddle joints: articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped

-modified condyloid joint

-biaxial – but more moveable than condyloid joints

e.g. thumb metacarpal and trapezium carpal bone

= trapeziometacarpal joint

6. Ball and socket joints: ball-like end of one bone fits into a

cuplike depression of another

-multiaxial - several planes of motion

e.g. hip joint, shoulder joint

three categories based on range of motion
Three categories based on range of motion
  • Synarthroses
    • Immovable joints
  • Amphiarthroses
    • Slightly movable joints
  • Diarthroses
    • Freely movable joints
synarthroses
Synarthroses
  • Bony edges may interlock
  • Sutures
    • Between skull bones
  • Gomphosis
    • Between teeth and jaw
  • Synchondrosis
    • Epiphyseal plate
  • Synostosis
    • Fused bones
amphiarthroses
Amphiarthroses
  • Limited movements
  • Syndesmosis
    • Collagen fibers connect bones
      • e.g. tibiofibular joint
  • Symphysis
    • Bones are separated by cartilage pad
      • e.g. pubic symphysis
diarthroses synovial joints
Diarthroses (synovial joints)
  • Wide range of movement
  • Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage
  • Lubricated by synovial fluid
  • Enclosed with joint capsule
  • Accessory structures
    • Menisci
    • Fat pads
    • Ligaments
    • Tendons
    • Bursae
    • Tendon sheaths
joint description
Joint Description
  • for the diathrotic joints – there are a number of axes along which movement is permitted
    • Monaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Triaxial
joints range of motion
Joints: Range of Motion
  • Degrees through which a joint can move
  • Determined by
    • structure of the articular surfaces
    • strength and tautness of ligaments, tendons and capsule
      • stretching of ligaments increases range of motion
      • double-jointed people have long or slack ligaments
    • action of the muscles and tendons
      • nervous system monitors joint position and muscle tone
slide93

Rotational Movements

  • Movement on longitudinal axis
    • rotation of trunk, thigh, head or arm
  • Medial rotation turns the bone inwards
  • Lateral rotation turns the bone outwards
rotational movements
Rotational Movements
  • Medial and lateral rotation of the hand – called pronation & supination
  • in the foot we call it eversion and inversion
special movement terms
Special movement terms
  • Pronation/Supination
  • Eversion/Inversion
  • Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion
  • Lateral flexion
  • Opposition
  • Protraction/retraction
  • Elevation/depression
movements of head and trunk

Special movement terms

Movements of Head and Trunk
  • Flexion, hyperextension and lateral flexion of vertebral column
movements of mandible

Special movement terms

Movements of Mandible
  • Lateral excursion = sideways movement
  • Medial excursion = movement back to the midline
    • side-to-side grinding during chewing
  • Protraction – retraction of mandible
movement of hand and digits

Special movement terms

Movement of Hand and Digits
  • Radial and ulnar flexion
  • Abduction of fingers and thumb
  • Opposition is movement of the thumb to approach or touch the fingertips
  • Reposition is movement back to the anatomical position
movements of the foot

Special movement terms

Movements of the Foot
  • Dorsiflexion is raising of the toes as when you swing the foot forward to take a step (heel strike)
  • Plantarflexion is extension of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe
  • Inversion is a movement in which the soles are turned medially
  • Eversion is a turning of the soles to face laterally
describing dynamic motion of diathrotic joints
Describing dynamic motion of diathrotic joints
  • Linear motion/Gliding
    • Back and forth or side to side
  • Angular motion
    • Angle between shaft and surface changes
    • flexion, extension, lateral extension, hyperextension

abduction, adduction and circumduction

  • Rotation
    • Spinning of shaft on longitudinal axis
    • pivot and ball and socket joints
    • rotation inward - medial rotation
    • rotation outward - lateral rotation
the temporomandibular joint
The Temporomandibular Joint
  • Mandibular fossa of temporal bone
  • Condylar processes of mandible
  • Thick articular disc
  • Supporting structures
    • Dense capsule
    • Temporomandibular ligament
    • Stylomandibular ligament
    • Sphenomandibular ligament
  • Loose hinge joint
intervertebral articulations
Intervertebral Articulations
  • Articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
  • Symphyseal joints at bodies
  • Ligaments bind vertebrae
  • Permits flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
slide106

Intervertebral discs separate

    • -outer fibrous ring of fibrocartilage
    • called the annulus fibrosis
    • -inner, soft, pulpy elastic material
    • called the nucleus pulposus
the sternoclavicular joint
The Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Articular disc
  • Supports include
    • -Anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments
    • -Intercalvicular ligaments
    • -Costoclavicular ligaments
  • Gliding joint
  • Sternal end of clavicle and manubruim of sternum
the shoulder joint
The Shoulder Joint
  • Glenohumoral joint
    • Glenoid fossa and head of humerus
  • Loose shallow joint
  • Greatest range of motion

Strength and stability are sacrificed

  • Supported by ligaments and muscles
  • Many bursae
the elbow joint
The Elbow Joint
  • Hinge joint
  • Flexion and extension
  • Includes humeroulnar joint and humeroradial joint
  • Supported by
    • Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments
    • Annular ligaments
the joints of the wrist
The Joints of the Wrist
  • Three joints
    • Distal radioulnar joint
      • Pivot diarthrosis
      • Pronation / suppination
    • Radiocarpal joint
      • Ellipsoidal articulation
      • Flexion/extension
      • Adduction/ abduction
      • circumduction
    • Intercarpal joints
      • Gliding joints
joints of the hand
Joints of the Hand
  • Intercarpal joints
    • Gliding
  • Carpometacarpal joint of thumb
    • Saddle
  • Carpometacarpal joints
    • Gliding
  • Metacarpophalangeal joints
    • Ellipsoidal
  • Interphalangeal joints
    • Hinge
the hip joint
The Hip Joint
  • Ball and socket diarthrosis
  • Acetabulum of os coxae and head of femur
  • Flexion / extension
  • Adduction / abduction
  • Circumduction
  • Rotation
  • Iliofemoral ligament
  • Pubofemoral ligament
  • Ischiofemoral ligament
  • Transverse acetabular ligaments
  • Ligament of femoral head
the knee joint
The Knee Joint
  • Complex hinge joint
  • Resembles three separate joints
    • Medial condyles of femur and tibia
    • Lateral condyles of femur and tibia
    • Patella and patellar surface of femur
  • Flexion / extension
  • Limited rotation
  • Support is not a single unified capsule
    • Not a single fluid cavity
  • Fibrocartilage pads
  • Medial and lateral menisci
  • Fat pads
  • Seven major ligaments bind knee joint
    • Popliteals
    • Patellar
    • Anterior and posterior cruciates
    • Tibial and fibular collaterals
the joints of the ankle and foot
The Joints of the Ankle and Foot
  • Hinge joint
  • Inferior surface of tibia, lateral malleolus of fibula, trochlea of talus
    • Primary joint is tibiotalar
  • Stabilizing ligaments
  • Dorsiflexion / plantar flexion
  • Intertarsal joints
    • Gliding
  • Tarsometatarsal joints
    • Gliding
  • Metatarsophalangeal
    • Gliding
  • Interphanageal
    • Hinge