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WHERE AM I?. Online Anatomy Module 1. INTRO & TERMS. CELL. EPITHELIUM. CONNECTIVE TISSUE. MUSCLE. NERVOUS SYSTEM. AXIAL SKELETON. APPENDICULAR SKELETON. MUSCLES. EMBRYOLOGY. SKELETON: Divisions. SKULL. VERTEBRAL COLUMN. PECTORAL GIRDLE. RIBS. LIMB BONES. PELVIC GIRDLE.

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slide1

WHERE AM I?

Online Anatomy Module 1

INTRO & TERMS

CELL

EPITHELIUM

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

MUSCLE

NERVOUS SYSTEM

AXIAL SKELETON

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

MUSCLES

EMBRYOLOGY

slide2

SKELETON: Divisions

SKULL

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

PECTORAL GIRDLE

RIBS

LIMB BONES

PELVIC GIRDLE

LIMB BONES

Marieb Fig 5.6, p 121

slide3

2 SKELETONS

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

PECTORAL GIRDLE

CLAVICLE (Collar bone) omitted

LIMB BONES upper

PELVIC GIRDLE

LIMB BONES lower

appendicular skeleton hangs on the axial

slide4

PECTORAL GIRDLE

The pectoral girdle is not a 19th-century corset for the upper chest

On each side, it is a pair of bones that allows the arm to be fastened to the body, but to have an amazing range of movements & uses

The arm is used for: swinging, crawling, reaching, pulling, throwing, twisting; & for positioning, orienting, stabilizing & controlling all that the hand does

The bones of the pectoral girdle are the shoulder-blades & the collar-bones

slide5

PECTORAL GIRDLE

The bones of the pectoral girdle are the shoulder-blades & the collar bones

SCAPULA or SHOULDER-BLADE

CLAVICLE or COLLAR-BONE

slide6

SCAPULA

The SCAPULA is a peculiarly-shaped bone, with many surfaces, edges and protuberances for muscles (& ligaments) to attach. These are needed to control the arm directly, but also to position and stabilize the scapula for whatever the arm is doing

The scapula is a highly mobile bone

The arm is used for: swinging, crawling, reaching, pulling, throwing, twisting, etc; & for positioning, orienting, stabilizing & controlling all that the hand does

slide7

SCAPULA Shoulder-blade

PECTORAL GIRDLE

The scapula is the major part of the pectoral girdle & lies posteriorly

The scapula is a shallow dish, with the concave side facing anteriorly, as it fits over the muscles & ribs of the back

slide8

SCAPULA: Terminology

Acromion process

Coracoid process

Spine

Vertebral margin

Glenoid fossa

Inferior angle

Needless to say, each side and angle has a name. Here are enough to be going on with.

slide9

Spine

SCAPULA: Parts I

The SPINE rises and thickens from the medial edge going laterally, forming a triangular ridge ending in a protuberance termed the ACROMION

The spine defines territories above & below it, into which muscles fit

Acromion = Acromion process

slide10

SCAPULA: Parts II

ACROMION PROCESS

improves the angle of action of the deltoid muscle pulling the arm away from the body, & anchors the lateral end of the clavicle

Medial/Vertebral margin

Spine

Coracoid process

Lies by the spines of vertebrae from which muscles attach to it

Glenoid fossa

slide11

CORACOID PROCESS

Acromion process

Anterior beak to improve angle of biceps muscle

GLENOID FOSSA

Spine

humerus

Shallow socket for head of the humerus

SCAPULA: Parts III

Medial/Vertebral margin

slide12

SCAPULA: Parts IV

Viewed from side

Acromion process

Coracoid process

Anterior beak to improve angle of pull of biceps muscle

humerus

Spine

Glenoid fossa

slide13

SCAPULA & CLAVICLE

The SCAPULA is a peculiarly-shaped bone, with many surfaces, edges and protuberances for muscles (& ligaments) to attach. These are need to control the arm, but also to position and stabilize the scapula for whatever the arm is doing

The scapula is a highly mobile bone

The arm is used for: swinging, reaching, pulling, throwing, twisting; & for positioning, orienting, stabilizing & controlling all that the hand does

The CLAVICLE is the strut that: holds the shoulder out away from the trunk;absorbs shock;fastens appendicular to axial skeleton ; & anchors several muscles & ligaments

(at the sterno-clavicular joint)

slide14

CLAVICLE

The arm is used for: swinging, crawling, reaching, pulling, throwing, twisting; & for positioning, orienting, stabilizing & controlling all that the hand does

The CLAVICLE is the strut/brace that:

holds the shoulder out, away from the trunk;

absorbs shock; &

fastens appendicular to axial skeleton

(at the sterno-clavicular joint)

& anchors several muscles & ligaments

slide15

Connections between axial & appendicular skeletons I Sterno-clavicular joint

CLAVICLE

Sterno-clavicular joint

STERNUM

SCAPULA rotated unnaturally

Sternum

slide16

Connections between axial & appendicular skeletons I Sterno-clavicular joint

Acromio-clavicular joint

CLAVICLE

Scapula has no other joints, Hence NO joint with axial skeleton.

Jugular notch

STERNUM

SCAPULA rotated unnaturally

Manubrium

Sternum body

Sterno-clavicular joint

Marieb Fig 5.20, p 133

slide17

CLAVICLE Left versus Right I

The clavicle has a lumpy sternal end & a blade-like acromial end

The upper surface is smoother* than the inferior one, because ligaments etc come from below to attach to tuberosities

The clavicle is a pulled-out S-shape

Use these three features to ID left from right thus:

“Smooth” - feel on yourself

slide18

1

2

3

CLAVICLE Left versus Right II

Place the clavicle on your chest with the lumpy end at your breast-bone

Try on right & left sides to make the first curvature going outward from the breast-bone face forward

Front

Back

If the upper surface is not the smoother one, move the clavicle (keeping orientations 1 & 2) to the other side

It should now be identifiable as Rt or Lft

slide19

Connections between axial & appendicular skeletons II Sacro-iliac joint

SACRUM of axial is wedged into the hip bones of the appendicular pelvic girdle

For stability & the transmission of load via the hip bones to the legs

Sacro-iliac joint

Marieb Fig 5.18, p 132

slide20

COMMON BONE TERMS

PROCESS

Protuberance

Tuberosity small bump

FOSSA

Spine

Spine

Shallow depression

Margin Border Edge

Head

Angle

slide21

COMMON BONE TERMS

PROCESS has become an overused word

In anatomy, as noun, it means something that sticks out or protrudes from a cell, from a bone, or from a soft organ

In anatomy, as noun, process still also means the way in which something occurs - the process of cell division, the process of shrinking, of winking

To give slow-witted politicians more time to think, the last example has been horribly extended by their speech-writers - for example, ‘deciding’ is a noun and does not need to be the ‘decision-making process’. Thus, “deciding that won’t be easy” , “wine-making is fun” are natural & correct English

slide22

HUMERUS

Viewed from behind

Is the single bone of the ARM

Proximally, it articulates with the scapula at the shoulder

Distally, it articulates with two bones of the forearm at elbow joint

It has specially shaped surfaces at the elbow to allow the ulna & radius their movements

At the elbow, it has depressions engaging processes of the ulna to limit its movement

It has several tuberosities and much surface , including epicondyles, for the attachment of muscles

slide23

HUMERUS I

Viewed from front

HEAD

Deltoid tuberosity

Coronoid Fossa

Lateral Epicondyle

Medial Epicondyle

Capitulum

Trochlea

slide24

HUMERUS II

Viewed from behind

Olecranon Fossa

HEAD

Deltoid tuberosity

Medial Epicondyle

Lateral Epicondyle

Trochlea

slide25

HUMERUS Right versus Left

1

On yourself, place the rounded head of the humerus at either shoulder

2

Turn the head so that it faces medially (inward) at that shoulder

At the elbow end, look for the shallow coronoid fossa on one side & the deeper olecranon fossa on the other

3

Keeping orientations 1 & 2, move the humerus to the side that has the deep olecranon fossa facing posteriorly

As one extends the elbow, the olecranon process of the ulna locks into the fossa on the humerus, preventing hyperextension

slide26

DISTAL HUMERUS

Viewed from front

Trochlear is a noun, not an adjective

The Trochlear is a spool-like rolling surface for the ulna

The Capitulum is a little sphere-like structure: a surface for rotation

The Capitulum matches a dimple in the symmetrical head of the radius bone

For the name, remember that capital punishment used often to include beheading

slide27

RADIUS I

Viewed from in front

Head

Neck

Radial tuberosity

Styloid process

Articular surface for wrist/carpal bones

slide28

RADIUS II

Viewed from in front

Head

Neck

Radial tuberosity

Sharp edge - Interosseous border/margin

Concave surface - space for muscles

Feel for yourself: the back of the forearm is bony, the front, squishy

Styloid process

Articular surface for wrist/carpal bones

slide29

RADIUS: Right versus Left

Radius lies laterally to ulna

Head lies at elbow end

Sharp edge faces medially towards ulna

Concave surface - space for muscles - faces forward

Styloid process sort-of points laterally

slide30

RADIUS & ULNA: Cautions

Head

The head of the ulna is at the wrist end

The ulna also has a styloid process. The two help hold the carpal bones in place.

Styloid process

slide31

ULNA I

Olecranon

Viewed from in front

Palpable at the back of the elbow, when you flex & extend it

Radial notch

Caution - on the ulna !

Coronoid process

Ulnar head

Styloid process

slide32

ULNA II

Olecranon

Viewed from in front

Palpable at the back of the elbow, when you flex & extend it

Radial notch

Caution - on the ulna !

Coronoid process

Head of ulna

Ulnar head

The bump lying laterally on the back of your wrist, when it is pronated (palm down)

Styloid process

slide33

ULNA III

Olecranon

Coronoid process

Radial notch

allows the radius to rotate against the ulna for supination-pronation movements

Concave surface - space for muscles

Interosseous margin

for strong fibrous attachment to the radius

Styloid process

Head

slide34

ULNA IV

Olecranon

Viewed from lateral side

Radial notch

Coronoid process

allows the radius to rotate against the ulna for supination-pronation movements

a ligament holds the radius in place

The elbow end of the ulna is distinctive, with its hook-like olecranon process for raking in the chips at the neolithic gaming table

slide35

HUMERUS

Viewed from behind

It has specially shaped surfaces at the elbow to allow the ulna & radius their movements

At the elbow, it has depressions engaging processes of the ulna to limit its movement - behind, the

Olecranon fossa takes olecranon of ulna

to limit extension of the elbow

rotated unnaturally

slide36

Back to the forearm

Right FOREARM BONES

RADIUS

ULNA

RADIUS on thumb side

ULNA on little-finger side

A relation kept during pronation

slide37

ANTERIOR Right FOREARM: Radius & Ulna

RADIUS

PRONATED

SUPINATED

Radius rotates on two radio-ulnar joints

Two bones are held together by ligaments & the interosseous membrane

Thumb medial

Thumb lateral

slide38

ULNA: Right versus Left

Ulna lies medially to radius

Olecranon is at elbow end

Radial notch faces laterally toward radius

Sharp edge faces laterally towards radius

Concave surface - space for muscles - faces forward

Styloid process sort-of points medially

slide39

RE-ASSEMBLY

Head

HUMERUS

Capitulum

RADIUS

ULNA

Thumb

Rt U LIMB

Anterior surfaces

slide40

WRIST & HAND III

Head of ulna

Thumb

Index finger/ Forefinger

This is a view of the DORSUM (back) of the hand. The other is the PALMAR (palm) side

Little finger/ Pinky

Ring finger

Middle finger

slide41

WRIST & HAND I

Digits

Knuckles

Head of ulna

CAUTION

One thinks of the wrist as what one grips on someone, using one’s whole hand

However, the wrist bones - carpals - are only those that lie under two fingers’ width just distal to the end of the ulna

slide42

HAND II: BONES

Phalangeal bones

Metacarpal bones

8 Carpal (wrist) bones

slide43

HAND II: BONES

IV

III

II

I

V

Phalanges (Phalangeal bones) 3 per finger

Terminal Distal

Middle

Proximal

2 for the thumb

Proximal

Terminal

Metacarpal bones

8 Carpal (wrist) bones

slide44

WRIST & HAND II

Knuckles of the fist are the heads of the metacarpals

However, the wrist bones - carpals - are only those that lie under two fingers’ width just distal to the end of the ulna

Carpal bones

But the carpal bones articulate with the radius: wrist is the radio-carpal joint

Head of ulna

slide45

BROKEN ‘WRIST’

is a term to arouse caution

The carpal bones articulate with the radius: wrist is the radio-carpal joint, so falling on the hand may break the distal radius

However, the wrist bones - carpals - are only those that lie under two fingers’ width just distal to the end of the ulna

Carpal bones

And one bone in particular of these true wrist ones is sometimes fractured

slide46

MAINLY SPONGY BONE LOSScauses fractures in

1 Bones that are mostly spongy, e.g. vertebra

compression fracture

2 Spongy part of long bones where leverage concentrates loading

“Wrist” end of radius

“Hip” fracture at neck of femur

from falling on the hand

slide47

WRIST FOR COMMUNICATION

Passing through the wrist are:

Arteries

All critical & vunerable, & with little muscle or fat to protect them

Veins

Nerves

Tendons to flex

Tendons to extend

Some protection comes from running many structures on the palmar side

Some of the carpal bones create a tunnel for more protection

slide48

LEFT CARPAL TUNNEL Schematic cross-section

Flexor retinaculum - sheet of fibrous tissue roofing in the tunnel

Ulnar artery

Mediannerve

Ulnar nerve

Tendons to flex

Tendons to extend

CARPAL BONES

outside tunnel, on dorsal side of wrist

lubricated spaces/compartments for structures to glide in

Discomfort of C-T syndrome from compromised median nerve

slide49

RADIAL ARTERY: Pulse

Concave surface - space for muscles - faces forward &

Radius lies laterally to ulna

also protects vessels, e.g., radial artery

Close to the wrist, where the muscles thin & give way to tendons, the pulse can be felt by pressing the artery against the bone with the finger tips

slide50

BRACHIAL ARTERY: Pulse

Brachial refers to the arm

Humerus

The brachial artery lies protected on the medial side of the humerus

Close to the elbow, where the muscles thin, the pulse can be felt by pressing the brachial artery against the humerus, or listened for with a stethoscope

slide51

LOWER APPENDICULAR SKELETON

Lower appendicular skeleton supports the axial skeleton and upper body & provides locomotion & other activities

It comprises the lower LIMB BONES &

the PELVIC GIRDLE stabilizing them & connecting with the axial skeleton

The connection is secured by wedging the axial sacrum between the hip bones to create the bony pelvis

SACRUM

ILIUM

slide52

PELVIC GIRDLE

HIP BONES

Ilium

Ischium

Pubic bone

LOWER APPENDICULAR SKELETON

Lower appendicular skeleton supports the axial skeleton upper body & provides locomotion & other activities

It comprises the lower LIMB BONES &

the PELVIC GIRDLE stabilizing them & connecting with the axial skeleton

The connection is secured by wedging the axial sacrum between the hip bones to create the bony pelvis

slide53

Connections between axial & appendicular skeletons II Sacro-iliac joint

SACRUM of axial is wedged into the hip bones of the appendicular pelvic girdle

For stability & the transmission of load via the hip bones to the legs

Marieb Fig 5.18, p 132

slide54

PELVIS

Viewed from in front

Is an assembly of the axial sacrum & two threesomes - hip bones

SACRUM

ILIUM

The three bones are fused together, but there are three pelvic joints: two sacro-iliac & one pubic symphysis

The pelvis protects the pelvic organs, but has four openings, two large

The pelvis is a stable device for transferring axial load to the legs at the hip joints

The hip joints allow the legs freedom of movement think gymnasts & ballet

Hip has much surface , including crests, for the attachment of muscles

slide55

Anterior view

SACRUM

ILIUM

HIP JOINT

Acetabulum - socket for ball- like head of femur/ thigh bone

This is a deep dislocation-resistant ball-&-socket joint, unlike the shoulder joint

slide56

PELVIS: Lines of sight

In general, some of the views of bones used here are a little different from those in the textbook in order to add to your ideas on the pieces of the skeleton

View from above - Superior

View from in front & above

Most of Marieb’s Figs

ILIUM

ILIUM

View from in front - Anterior

slide57

Anterior view

PELVIC GIRDLE + SACRUM

Two hip bones are fused assemblages of three bones each.They have the sacrum wedged between them behind& fasten at the front by a fibrocartilaginous joint - symphysis

Sacroiliac joint

SACRUM

ILIUM

Ischium

Pubic symphysis

Pubic bone

slide58

PELVIC GIRDLE + SACRUM II

ILIUM is the major bone

Anterior view

SACRUM

ILIUM

Obturator foramen - hole

defined by

Ischium below

Pubic bone above

Acetabulum

slide59

Ischial tuberosity

Ischial ramus

OBTURATOR FORAMEN

Anterior view

SACRUM

ILIUM

Superior pubic ramus

Obturator foramen

Acetabulum

Inferior pubic ramus

Ramus (L) - a branch, bough

slide60

SACRUM

Superior pubic ramus

Obturator foramen

Ischial tuberosity

Inferior pubic ramus

Ischial ramus

OBTURATOR FORAMEN II

Anterior view

NOTE on 1 SIDE Two pubic rami, one ischial ramus Lower ramus has a join halfway along Unseen that the ischium is larger than the pubic bone

slide61

HIP/COXAL BONES = ONE OS COXA

Lateral view

HIP BONES

Ilium

Ischium

Pubic bone

ILIUM

Acetabulum

Ilium

Lines of fusion of 3 bones during childhood

Ischium

Pubic bone

Obturator foramen

slide62

HIP/COXAL BONES = ONE OS COXA

CAUTION - Ask

When the term ‘hip bones’ is used, is the reference to:

ILIUM

the two composite hip bones of each side?

the three bones making up one hip bone?

Ilium

the six bones making up both hip bones?

Ask

Ischium

Pubic bone

slide63

SUB-PUBIC ANGLE

SACRUM

ILIUM

Obturator-foramen shape

Sub-pubic angle (Pubic arch)

is one of many variables between female & male pelves, aimed at having the female pelvis suited for childbirth, as well as the other pelvic functions

slide64

ISCHIUM I

Lateral view

Anterior view

SACRUM

ILIUM

ILIUM

Sciatic notch

Ischial ramus

what one sits on

Ischial tuberosity

Ischial tuberosity

slide65

PELVIS & ISCHIUM II

Superior view

SACRUM

Mid-pelvic diameter

Ischial spines create

a hazardous constriction in the pelvic (birth) canal

slide66

Please don’t squeeze my head

Superior view

Before reaching the ischial tuberosities, etc, of the pelvic outlet, the baby’s head has to enter the pelvic inlet

One of its critical dimensions is the INLET between the sacral promontory & the upper margin of the pubis

Sacral promontory

SACRUM

The sacral promontory & the lower edge of the pubis can be felt via the vagina for prior warning of trouble

slide67

ILIUM

ILIUM

Medial view from the midline looking laterally

SACRUM

Sciatic notch

Ischial spine

WORKING PELVIS

Despite the number of views of the pelvis that we have seen already, one more - the medial - is needed to understand a working pelvis

The empty-appearing black spaces shown within the contours of the pelvis are occupied by many muscles & ligaments

Some holes also let nerves & vessels pass out

Although, for diagrams, the pelvis is presented aligned with the screen or page margins, in life it is tilted in the body in the sagittal plane

slide68

Medial view from the midline looking laterally

HIP/COXAL BONE

Iliac crest (felt at the ‘hip’)

ILIUM

SACRUM

ILIUM

Sciatic notch

Pubic symphisis

Ischial spine

Obturator foramen

Ischial tuberosity

slide69

PELVIS IN POSITION

The pelvis protects the pelvic organs, but has four openings, two large

Abdominal cavity

Pelvic inlet boundary between cavities

At the top, it is freely open to the abdominal cavity

Pubic symphysis

ILIUM

ILIUM

Underneath, the narrower opening is covered in by the muscles of the pelvic floor

Pelvic cavity

slide70

PELVIS IN POSITION

Note the axis curves going through the pelvis

The upper direction is taken as the fetus grows into abdominal territory

At birth, the head must make several turns & twists to follow the axis down

Pelvic inlet

Abdominal cavity

ILIUM

ILIUM

Pubic symphysis

Pelvic cavity

Pelvic axis

slide71

PELVIS: Female versus Male

We have seen just about enough views to list some of the differences. So far, the pelvis shown has not really been sexually differentiated.

SACRUM

FEMALE

More lightly built

Pelvis wider & more shallow

Obturator foramen oval

Sub-pubic angle wide (greater than 800)

Shorter, more curved sacrum

Unseen here: pelvic inlet, oval;outlet, relatively large

slide72

Anterior view

FEMALE

More lightly built

Pelvis wider & more shallow

Obturator foramen oval

Sub-pubic angle wide (greater than 800)

Shorter, more curved sacrum

Unseen here: pelvic inlet, oval;outlet, relatively large

PELVIS: Female versus Male

Marieb Fig 5.23, p.137

slide73

PELVIS: Male versus Female

Anterior view

MALE

More heavily built

Pelvis deep

Obturator foramen round

Sub-pubic angle narrow (less than 800)

Longer, straighter sacrum

Unseen: pelvic inlet, heart-shaped;outlet, relatively small

slide74

PELVIS: Female versus Male

FEMALE

MALE

More lightly built

Obturator foramen round

Pelvis wider & more shallow

Sub-pubic angle wide (greater than 800)

Longer, straighter sacrum

slide75

COXAL BONE: Right versus Left I

Iliac crest (felt at the ‘hip’)

ILIUM

ILIUM

Acetabulum (on lateral side)

SACRUM will be absent

Pubic symphisis

For lab ID of one hip bone

Place the bone on yourself with: the iliac crest superior, the acetabulum facing outward, and bone tilted so that the rough pubic symphysis faces a little down, and is right at the midline to meet its fellow of the other side

slide76

COXAL BONE: Right versus Left II

Place the bone on yourself with:

the iliac crest superior,

the acetabulum facing outward,

and bone tilted so that the rough pubic symphysis faces a little down, and is right at the midline to meet its fellow of the other side

ILIUM

ILIUM

slide77

PELVIC ORGANS

The pelvis protects the pelvic organs, but has four openings, two large

Pelvic cavity: contents

Genital/ reproductive

Urinary bladder Ends of ureters

Rectum

Pelvic inlet boundary between cavities

Vessels & nerves

Abdominal cavity

ILIUM

ILIUM

Pubic symphysis

Pelvic cavity

Muscular pelvic floor holds contents up.

slide78

Genital/ reproductive

Urinary bladder Ends of ureters

Rectum

Vessels & nerves

PELVIC ORGANS: Prolapse

Pelvic cavity: contents

Pelvic cavity

Muscular pelvic floor holds contents up.

If the floor is weakened by trauma, giving birth, nerve damage, organs can drop - prolapse; sometimes to the point of hanging out of orifices

ILIUM

ILIUM

slide79

FEMUR I

Viewed from behind

Is the single bone of the thigh

Proximally, it articulates with the pelvic girdle at the hip

At the hip , it has a prominent head

Distally, it articulates at the knee with one of the two leg bones

It has specially shaped surfaces - condyles - at the knee to roll on the plateau of the tibia

It has several tuberosities and much surface , including epicondyles, for the attachment of muscles

slide80

FEMUR II

Viewed from front

Greater trochanter

Femoral head

Femoral neck

Minor trochanter

Lateral epicondyle

Medial epicondyle

slide81

FEMUR III

Viewed from behind

Greater trochanter

Femoral head

Femoral neck

Minor trochanter

Linea aspera

Intercondylar fossa

Lateral epicondyle

Medial epicondyle

Lateral condyle

Medial condyle

slide82

FEMUR IV: ID left from right

Viewed from behind

Femoral head

facing in to the hip

Gluteal tuberosity

Linea aspera

facing posteriorly

Concavity for hamstring muscles & popliteal region to the back

slide83

TIBIA & FIBULA I

Rt viewed from front

Lateral condyle

Medial condyle

TIBIA

Tibial tuberosity

Fibular HEAD

Anterior crest

Sharp edge to be felt down the front of the shin bone

FIBULA

Lateral Malleolus

Medial Malleolus

slide84

Patella

FEMUR IV Patella

Viewed from front

The quadriceps muscles in the front of the thigh send their tendon across the knee joint to insert into the front of the tibia.

As the tendon passes the knee, it includes a bone - the patella or knee-cap.

The patella, on its posterior side, has cartilage-covered surfaces to articulate with the anterior femur (they feel smooth)

Patella does not articulate with the tibia

The tendon continues on to anchor in the tibial tuberosity

slide85

KNEE I

Lateral view

Anterior

Quadriceps muscle

Posterior

Quadriceps tendon

FEMUR

Patella

Cruciate Ligament

TIBIA

One of many robust ones stabilizing the knee

Popliteal space for nerves vessels, muscles, etc

The fibula does not participate

slide86

KNEE II

Anterior view

The femoral condyles roll on the flatter condyles of the tibial plateau

FEMUR

The motion is mostly in one plane for flexion & extension of the knee because of the many ligaments restraining motion

Patella

However, some rotation is necessary

Wedge-shaped semicircular pieces of fibrocartilage lie medially & laterally, partially to cushion the opposing condyles. Each is a meniscus.

TIBIA

The medial meniscus is held in place and often gets torn - a “torn knee cartilage”, with the piece(s) causing inflammation & interfering with motion

FIBULA

slide87

FIBULA

In the lab, the fibula is a slender bone distinguished by its lack of distinction at either end

Fibular HEAD

Lateral Malleolus

slide88

TIBIA & FIBULA II

TIBIA

FIBULA

Lateral Malleolus

TALUS

Rt. viewed from front

Interosseous membrane fastening fibula to tibia , along with ligaments, e.g.,

Anterior tibiofibular ligament

Medial Malleolus

slide89

TIBIA Right versus Left

Rt viewed from front

TIBIA

Tibial tuberosity

Anterior crest

Sharp edge to be felt down the front of the shin bone

Like the femur, more muscle is at the back, so the concavity should face rearwards

FIBULA

Medial Malleolus

other Malleolus is on the fibula

slide90

FOOT I: BONES

Rt foot from above

Big toe

Phalangeal bones

Metatarsal bones

Tarsal / ankle bones

TALUS

CALCANEUS heel-bone

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FOOT II: TARSAL BONES

from above

Big toe

Note contrasts with the wrist bones

Phalangeal bones

Two much larger bones

Only one bone - talus -articulates with the tibia & fibula

Metatarsal bones

Tarsal/ankle bones

Bones held together with strong ligaments

Bones participate in constructing flexible arches for walking

TALUS

Marieb Fig 5.26, p. 139

CALCANEUS heel-bone

7 bones instead of 8

slide92

FOOT III: ANKLE JOINT

Rt. viewed from front

TIBIA

Interosseous membrane fastening fibula to tibia , along with ligaments, e.g.,

FIBULA

Anterior tibiofibular ligament

Lateral Malleolus

Medial Malleolus

TALUS

slide93

FOOT IV: Loading

Rt. viewed from medial side

The Talus spreads the load to the heel-bone and the heads of the metatarsals to transfer to the ground, tree, floor, mud, or wherever you live

TALUS

CALCANEUS

Metatarsal

Medial longitudinal arch of the foot. There are also lateral longitudinal, and transverse arches

slide94

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