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The Skeletal System

The Skeletal System. http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API Notes H Skeletal System.htm. Terminology. 1 Condyle – Rounded prominence 2 Facet – Smooth articular surface 3 Fissure – Narrow opening 4 Foramen – Opening or hole through bone 5 Fossa – Depression or groove.

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The Skeletal System

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  1. The Skeletal System http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API Notes H Skeletal System.htm

  2. Terminology • 1Condyle – Rounded prominence • 2Facet – Smooth articular surface • 3Fissure – Narrow opening • 4Foramen – Opening or hole through bone • 5Fossa – Depression or groove

  3. http://faculty.pnc.edu/rhengst/articsurf/condyle.GIF

  4. http://www.downingchiropractic.com/clipart/facet.gif

  5. FISSURE FISSURE http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/images/Image180.gif

  6. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/gif/foramen.gif

  7. FOSSA http://www.mut.ac.th/~vet/Anat-html/bone/bone_html_m5461230e.jpg

  8. 6Process – Any bone projection • 7Spine – A narrow or pointed projection • 8Trochanter – A large, blunt process http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API Notes H Skeletal Features.htm

  9. PROCESS http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/figimgs/22_1.gif

  10. SPINE http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/imgs/00000/1000/700/1753.jpg

  11. TROCHANTER http://www.amberdragon.ca/book/images/0503/0301pelvis.gif

  12. 9).Tubercle – A small, rounded process • 10).Tuberosity – A rounded, elevated area of a bone that is usually roughened

  13. http://www.gla.ac.uk/ibls/fab/images/anatomy/glegadtu.gif

  14. http://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentImages/knee/child_knee_osgood/child_knee_osgood_anatomy01.jpghttp://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentImages/knee/child_knee_osgood/child_knee_osgood_anatomy01.jpg

  15. Types of bones • 4 types of bones. • Long bones - longer than they are wide. • Short bones - equal in length and width. • Flat bones - thin and flat. • Irregular bones do not fit into any of these categories.

  16. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Illu_long_bone.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Illu_long_bone.jpg

  17. http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/m/jmh595/

  18. http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/m/jmh595/graphics/flatbone.jpghttp://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/m/jmh595/graphics/flatbone.jpg

  19. IRREGULAR BONES http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/j/m/jmh595/Irregular%20bones.htm

  20. Bone Structure • The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis. • The extreme ends of the bones are known as the epiphyses. • The diaphysis is between the two epiphyses.

  21. http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/images/Image267.gif

  22. Epiphysis of one bone meets the epiphysis of another bone is called a joint. • Cartilage in joint known as the articular cartilage.

  23. http://www.the-health-pages.com/images/artic0.jpg

  24. Bone - covered by a layer of connective tissue (periosteum). • Provides nourishment attaches ligaments and tendons.

  25. http://faculty.southwest.tn.edu/rburkett/AP1_b12.jpg

  26. Two types of bone tissue in the diaphysis. • Compact bone is tightly packed and forms the walls of the diaphysis. • Spongy bone is less compact and is found in the diaphysis.

  27. http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/images/illu_compact_spongy_bone.jpghttp://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/images/illu_compact_spongy_bone.jpg

  28. Within the spongy bone is red marrow. • Within the diaphysis is a chamber called the medullary cavity. • This cavity has yellow marrow which is used for energy storage.

  29. http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/skeletonorg.html

  30. Leukemia • Red marrow - makes red blood cells (hematopoiesis), white blood cells, and platelets. • When white blood cells can’t fight off infection, leukemia develops. • Treatment for leukemia - injecting new bone marrow into the patient.

  31. http://www.montana.edu/wwwai/imsd/cancer/van1/vwtreatments_files/image009.jpghttp://www.montana.edu/wwwai/imsd/cancer/van1/vwtreatments_files/image009.jpg

  32. *Bone cells • There are three types of bone cells. • 1Osteoblasts - come from embryonic cells and found on surface of bone tissue. • They lay bone down around themselves - become surrounded by bone matrix. • Then they are called 2osteocytes.

  33. http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f6-6a_types_of_cells_in_c.jpghttp://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f6-6a_types_of_cells_in_c.jpg

  34. 3Osteoclasts are found in the bone tissue and are involved with secretion of a substance that breaks down the bones. • Osteoclasts help to break down the bone so that osteoblasts can lay new bone. • This is how a bone grows.

  35. http://ae.medseek.com/bguide/reftext/images/osteoclast.jpg

  36. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/bonediagr.gifhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/bonediagr.gif

  37. Under the microscope • Osteocytes are found in spaces called lacunae, which are found between lamellae. • These lamellae are layered in circles around canals known as Haversian canals.

  38. http://w3.ouhsc.edu/histology/Glass%20slides/69_04.jpg

  39. http://www.cytochemistry.net/microanatomy/bone/cpbone.jpg

  40. Bone Growth • 2 forms of development. • 1Intramembranous bones - cells develop between sheetlike layers of connective tissue. • 2Endochondral bones - masses of cartilage are later replaced by bone tissue.

  41. Intramembraneous bones - bones of the skull. • Connective tissue appears where the bones will eventually be. • Some of that connective tissue differentiates into the osteoblasts, which lay down bone.

  42. http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_saladin/folder_structure/su/m2/s4/assets/images/sum2s4_1.jpghttp://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_saladin/folder_structure/su/m2/s4/assets/images/sum2s4_1.jpg

  43. In endochondral bone (most other bones) - masses of cartilage have same basic shape as future bones. • The cartilage cells die - osteoblasts replace them. • Happens in two stages - primary and secondary ossification centers.

  44. When bone nears end of early development, a narrow band of cartilage remains between epiphyses and the diaphysis (epiphyseal plate) • These are growth plates - located at each end of the bone. • Determines how long your bones will be.

  45. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/18022.jpghttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/18022.jpg

  46. http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/bone_growth.gif

  47. Growth plate injuries can happen. • This is when the growth plate area is broken. • In severe cases (only in children), it can stunt growth of the bone. • When these growth plates close, you are done growing.

  48. http://www.vetsurgerycentral.com/images/growth_plate.gif

  49. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts - lay down bone and breaking down bone. • Once the epiphyseal plate is gone - done growing. • The osteoblasts and osteoclasts are important in broken bones.

  50. http://www.hughston.com/hha/b_15_3_1c.jpg

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