Comparisons of equality using adjectives and adverbs are expressed in Italian with così ... come or tanto ... quanto. In practice, così and tanto are often omitted. Il salotto è (così)grande comeThe living room is as big as thelo studio.office.La cucina è (tanto)moderna The kitchen is as modern as thequantoilbagno. bathroom.Paolo guida(così) lentamentePaolo drives as slowly as hiscomesuofratello. brother. Note that when the second part of a comparison contains a pronoun, a disjunctive form is used. Il fratellodi Paolo guida (tanto) lentamente quantote.
Comparisons of equality of nouns and verbs are expressed with the pattern tanto ... quanto. When tanto modifies a noun, it agrees with the noun. Mio fratellomangiaquanto un My brother eats as much as anelefante. elephant.Ha tantafame quantoun lupo. He is as hungry as a wolf.Mangiatante verdure quantote. He eats as many vegetables as you do. When the quantity of two nouns is being compared, tantoand quanto agree with the nouns. Nelfrigocisonotantearance There are as many oranges asquantemele, e c’ètanto apples in the refrigerator, andtèfreddo quantalimonata. there is as much iced tea as lemonade.
Comparisons of inequality between two different subjects are formed with the patterns più ... di and meno ... di. Such comparisons may pertain to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, or pronouns. When the second part of the comparison is a pronoun, the disjunctive form is used. La saladapranzo è piùgrande The dining room is larger thandelsalotto. the living room.La cantina è menofrescadel The cellar is less cool than thegiardino. garden.Quest’appartamento ha piùThis apartment has moreelettrodomesticidell’altro. appliances than the other.Questa casa ha meno scale This house has fewer stairs thandellamia.mine. 2.Piùdiand menodi are used with cardinal numbers in comparisons. Abbiamovistopiùdiventi We looked at more than twentyappartamenti. apartments.L’affittodiquest’appartamento è The rent for this apartment ismenodi€500 al mese. less than €500 a month. 3.Cheis used instead of di when comparing two adjectives or two nouns pertaining to the same subject. Ho piùamichecheamici. I have more female friends than male friends.Studio più in bibliotecache I study more at the library than at home.a casa.
Congiuntivopresente: Verbicheesprimonodesiderio, volontà e speranza Verbs have both tense (tempo), which tells you when the action takes place relative to the present, and mood (modo), which tells you how the speaker perceives the statement. Most of the tenses you have learned so far are in the indicative mood, which is used for stating facts and certainties. Another mood in Italian is the subjunctive (ilcongiuntivo), which also has several tenses. English has a subjunctive mood as well, but it is used infrequently. We would prefer that you be prompt.I wish you were here.
The subjunctive is nearly always used in a subordinate clause introduced by che. Compare the verb forms in the pairs of sentences below. The verb in the first sentence is in the indicative mood: it states a fact. The verb in the che clause of the second sentence is in the subjunctive mood.
Certain conditions expressed in the main clause of a sentence require the subjunctive in the subordinate clause. If the main clause expresses a desire, a demand, or a hope, the subordinate clause will be in the subjunctive. Some verbs of desire or hope that require the subjunctive in a dependent clause are: La professoressasuggerisceche The professor suggests that you listenvoiascoltiateattentamente in classe. carefully in class.Vuolechetuttiglistudenticapiscano She wants all her students tola lezione. understand the lesson.
The subjunctive is used only when the main clause and the subordinate clause have two different subjects. An infinitive is used if there is no change of subject. PatriziasperadidivertirsiquestoPatrizia hopes to have fun thissemestre. semester.I genitorisperanochePatriziaprendaPatrizia’s parents hope that shebuonivotiquestosemestre. gets good grades this semester.Non vogliochetuspendamolto. I don’t want you to spend a lot.Non vogliospenderemolto. I don’t want to spend a lot.
Verbs ending in -care and -gare add h to all forms of the present subjunctive to retain the hard sound of the c or g. Speriamochegiochinobene.Let’s hope they play well.Preferiamochepaghiatevoi. We prefer that you pay.