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How to form the subjunctive mood. The subjunctive mood is used a great deal in the Spanish language. For example, the subjunctive can help a person to talk about something wished for, something about which a person feels some special emotional reaction, or something that is not real in some way.

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how to form the subjunctive mood
How to form the subjunctive mood
  • The subjunctive mood is used a great deal in the Spanish language. For example, the subjunctive can help a person to talk about something wished for, something about which a person feels some special emotional reaction, or something that is not real in some way.
slide2
Before you see any examples of the subjunctive in action, you will learn the proper forms of this mood. This first section will simply teach you how to form the subjunctive.
  • Consider this section a boot camp for forming the subjunctive.
  • For now, all you will have to do is conjugate, memorize, conjugate, and then memorize some more.
regular verbs
Regular verbs

-ar verbs: take off the “-ar” ending to the infinitive

Add “e, es, e, emos, éis, en”

-er/-ir verbs: take off the “-er/-ir” ending of the infinitive

Add “a, as, a, amos, áis, an”

stem changing boot verbs
Stem-changing (boot) verbs
  • -ar and –er “boot” verbs
  • What happens with “boot” verbs in the subjunctive? –Ar and –Er “boot” verbs operate the same way “boot” verbs do in the present tense. The stem change occurs only inside the boot in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular, and in the 3rd person plural.
  • The endings are typical subjunctive endings: -ar verbs “e, es, e, emos, éis, en”; -er verbs “a, as, a, amos, áis, an”
ir boot verbs
-Ir boot verbs
  • -ir “boot” verbs are a little bit different in the subjunctive.
  • The expected stem changes occur inside the boot (in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular and in the person plural)
  • In addition, changes are required in the 1st person and 2nd person plural as well.
  • These special out of the boot changes are the same changes found with these –ir verbs in the 3rd person singular and plural of the preterite. (ex. Sentir = sintió; dormir= durmió)
irregular verbs
Irregular Verbs
  • You remember that there were a number of verbs that had irregular conjugations in the present tense in the 1st person singular (ex. oigo, quepo, veo, etc…).
  • Because the subjunctive generally builds on the 1st person singular, you will notice those irregularities played out in every form of the subjunctive.
irregulars
Irregulars:
  • Caber = quep-
  • Caer = caig-
  • Decir = dig-
  • Hacer = hag-
  • Oir = oig-
  • Poner = pong- + opposite endings (-ar)
  • Salir = salg- (e, es, e, emos, éis, en)
  • Tener = teng-
  • Valer = valg-
  • Venir = veng-
  • Ver = ve-
super irregulars
Super-irregulars
  • Finally, there are 6 verbs whose subjunctive forms are just “locas.” They are not built upon the 1st person singular of the present tense.
  • You will have to memorize these special verbs.
now that you know the conjugations for the subjunctive mood conjugate the following verbs
Now that you know the conjugations for the subjunctive mood conjugate the following verbs:
  • Caminar
  • Meter
  • Subir
  • Sentar
  • Mover
  • Dormir
  • Tener
  • Salir
  • Conocer
  • Pagar
  • Dirigir
  • Buscar
  • Ir
  • Ser
  • Saber
caminar
Caminar
  • Camine Caminemos
  • Camines Caminéis
  • Camine Caminen
meter
Meter
  • Meta Metamos
  • Metas Metáis
  • Meta Metan
subir
Subir
  • Suba Subamos
  • Subas Subáis
  • Suba Suban
sentar
Sentar
  • Siente Sentemos
  • Sientes Sentéis
  • Siente Sienten
mover
Mover
  • Mueva Movamos
  • Muevas Mováis
  • Mueva Muevan
dormir
Dormir
  • Duerma Durmamos
  • Duermas Durmáis
  • Duerma Duerman
tener
Tener
  • Tenga Tengamos
  • Tengas Tengáis
  • Tenga Tengan
salir
Salir
  • Salga Salgamos
  • Salgas Salgáis
  • Salga Salgan
conocer
Conocer
  • Conozca Conozcamos
  • Conozcas Conozcáis
  • Conozca Conozcan
pagar
Pagar
  • Pague Paguemos
  • Pagues Paguéis
  • Pague Paguen
dirigir
Dirigir
  • Dirija Dirijamos
  • Dirijas Dirijáis
  • Dirija Dirijan
buscar
Buscar
  • Busque Busquemos
  • Busques Busquéis
  • Busque Busquen
slide26
Ir
  • Vaya Vayamos
  • Vayas Vayáis
  • Vaya Vayan
slide27
Ser
  • Sea Seamos
  • Seas Seáis
  • Sea Sean
saber
Saber
  • Sepa Sepamos
  • Sepas Sepáis
  • Sepa Sepan
slide29
Write the forms of the subjunctive mood that corresponds to these verb forms of the present indicative tense.
  • Comen Dormimos
  • Piden Buscan
  • Protegen Va
  • Se sienten Son
  • Podemos Comienzan
  • Morimos Dices
  • Enciendo Vemos
  • Cerráis Pago
  • Pedís Tienes
answers
Answers:
  • Coman Durmamos
  • Pidan Busquen
  • Protejan Vaya
  • Se sientan Sean
  • Podamos Comiencen
  • Muramos Digas
  • Encienda Veamos
  • Cerréis Pague
  • Pidáis Tengas
from which infinitives did the following subjunctive forms come
From which infinitives did the following subjunctive forms come?
  • Sean Muramos
  • Tengan Oigan
  • Se sientan Practiquen
  • Compréis Sepas
  • Conozcáis Des
answers32
Answers:
  • Ser Morir
  • Tener Oír
  • Sentirse Practicar
  • Comprar Saber
  • Conocer Dar
the subjunctive mood after indirect commands
The Subjunctive mood after indirect commands
  • An indirect command features a main clause that asks someone to do something, and a dependent clause (the part of the sentence that follows the word “que”) that mentions the action that the speaker wants the other person to do.
  • The subjunctive is used in that dependent clause because the action being described has not happened yet.
  • There is a certain level of uncertainty inherent in the sentence, and the use of a verb in the subjunctive mood helps to express that uncertainty.
examples34
Examples:
  • Quiero que mi amiga baile conmigo esta noche.
  • I want my friend to dance with me tonight.
slide35
Mi madre insiste en que comamos la ensalada primero.
  • My mother insists that we eat the salad first.
slide36
Pedimos que los oficiales nos escriban más tarde.
  • We are asking the officials to write to us later.
slide37
In all of the previous sentences, the action in the dependent clause hasn’t happened yet.
  • It is not verifiable.
  • For example, in the first sentence, I want my friend to dance with me, but she just might not.
  • In sentence 2, my mom wants us to eat the salad first, but we may choose to eat dessert first.
  • In the third sentence, we ask the officials to write us later, but maybe they will choose to write us now or not at all.
  • The subjunctive beautifully helps to convey that level of uncertainty.
slide38
Common verbs that express commands that would be found in the main clause of these types of sentences.
  • Decir Pedir(i)
  • Dejar(to allow, permit) Permitir
  • Desear Preferir(ie)
  • Esperar Prohibir
  • Exigir(to demand) Querer(ie)
  • Hacer Recomendar (ie)
  • Insistir en (to insist on) Rogar(to beg)(ue)
  • Mandar(to order) Sugerir(to suggest)(ie)
here is a review of the formula found in this section
Here is a review of the “formula” found in this section:
  • Subject #1 + verb #1 + que + subject #2 + verb #2
  • The first person (subject #1) wants, wishes, insists, suggests (verb #1) that (que) (subject #2) do something (verb #2)
translate the following sentences into spanish
Translate the following sentences into Spanish.
  • 1. I’m telling you to shut your mouth immediately!
  • 2. My friends recommend that I return home immediately.
  • 3. My grandmother wants me to see the film “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” with her.
  • 4. My girlfriend insists that I wear a white suit at our wedding, but the idea doesn’t appeal to me at all.
  • 5. The sergeant orders us to write down the orders in a notebook.
  • 6. That cook prohibits me from making bread in her kitchen.
  • 7. The boys are begging that the witnesses tell the truth.
slide41
¡Te digo que cierres la boca inmediatamente!
  • Mis amigos recomiendan que vuelva a casa enseguida.
  • Mi abuela quiere que yo vea la pelicula “Harry Potter and the Socerer’s Stone” con ella.
  • Mi novia insiste en que yo lleve un traje blanco en la boda (a nuestra boda), pero no me apetece nada la idea.
  • El sargento nos manda que escribamos las órdenes en un cuaderno.
  • Esa cocinera prohibe que yo haga pan en su cocina.
  • Los chicos ruegan que los testigos digan la verdad.
el fin
El Fin

Information cited from:Conner, John Breaking the Spanish Barrier 2006

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