“I see no hope for our future if we depend on the frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond words. When I was a boy we were taught to be discreet and respectful of elders, but the present youth are exceedingly wise and impatient of restraint.” Aristotle
The Challenge • Problem: Eric enters the school building and within three minutes has a verbal conflict with another student, has walked away from a teacher who is supervising the situation, & has convinced other students to leave school with him. Staff members report that he is unresponsive to their directions and openly defiant. • What should you do?
The Challenge • Problem: A teacher reports that Joe continues to disturb the class at high rates. He says that Joe constantly talks out, often gets physical with peers, refuses to do work and frequently gets silly and inappropriate during group discussions. The teacher reports that he has tried everything and nothing works, and that he is totally frustrated. He says he is desperate for good suggestions. • What suggestions would you give this teacher? • How do you know which strategy to try?
The BIG Idea FUNCTION MATTERS
Outcomes for Today • Identify the components of function based support • Identify simple screening tools to determine students in need of support • Identify a variety of Targeted Group Interventions
Function Based Support Takes a functional view of behavior asserting that behavior always occurs for a reason, and the reason is directly related to the person's unique interaction with the environment where the behavior occurs. Understanding the influence of context on behavior leads to developing interventions that include changes in the environment (Dunlop, 2001) and an appreciation of the function that the behavior services for an individual (Johnston & O'Neill, 2001).
The Importance of Context Every behavior has a social and environmental context. When we try to answer the question “what function” is a behavior serving for a person” we attempt to identify relationships between the person, environmental events, and the occurrence or non-occurrence of specific behaviors.
Assumptions of Positive Behavior Support • All behavior serves a purpose • Behavior is context related. • Inappropriate behaviors are learned and predictable. • All elements of an intervention need to be consistent with assumptions about the mechanisms sustaining problem behavior. • Understanding behavioral function is essential • Implement effective practices WITH the systems that will support and sustain those practices
Learned Responses • Students who chronically engage in problem behavior have: • Learned that it is a functional response for getting what they want • in many cases avoiding academic tasks they struggle with • Often do not have practiced alternative, more appropriate behaviors to fall back on
A Context for PBIS & Function Based Support Behavior support is the redesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals Positive Behavior Support plans define changes in the behavior of those who will implement the plan. A behavior support plan describes what we will do differently. Rob Horner- University of Oregon
Function-based Behavior Support • A different approach to addressing support for students with problem behaviors. • Function-based support focuses on the “why” or function of the behavior as well as “why does it continues to happen”.
What happens when behavioral interventions ignore function? • Students may engage more frequently in the problem behavior – it helps them to get what they want • Students may stop engaging in the problem behavior, but try another inappropriate way to achieve the function
Understanding Behavior ABC • If students are repeatedly engaging in a behavior, they are most likely doing it for a reason, because it is paying off for them…. • Behavior is communication; students can learn either that (a) expected behavior or (b) problem behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met • students will use which ever behavior works most effectively and most efficiently for them to attain their desired outcome
ABC of Behavior Behavioral Events A B C
Understanding Function 1. to get something • attention, objects, activities, self-stimulation (self-regulation) 2. to escape/avoid something • tasks, embarrassment, situations, persons The most common problem behaviors in school and in life serve a function: Adapted from T. Scott, 1988
Functional Approach to Behavior Management • Examples of Functions of Problem Behavior
Steps in Function-based Support Process • Define the challenge • Build a testable hypothesis (interview, observe) • Confirm the hypothesis (observe, manipulate) • Use “competing behavior analysis” to build possible elements of behavior support plan • Use “contextual fit” guidelines to select final elements of behavior support plan • Implement behavior support plan • Monitor and modify as needed
What is FBA? A systematic process for developing statements about factors that: • contribute to occurrence & maintenance of problem behavior, & • more importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans. • The effectiveness and efficiency of behavior support is improved with knowledge of behavioral function. • Behavioral Function: The consequence that maintains a behavior. • Developing support without regard for behavioral functional will result in plans that are as likely to make problem behavior WORSE as to produce improvement.
Defining Behavioral Function • Define the behavior • Be specific, and operational (what you can count) • Define the routine/context • Place the behavior in a context. • In that context, that behavior, by that student is most likely maintained by ???? • Focus on the single most controlling consequence
Functional approach logic • Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function) • Positive or negative reinforcement • Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events • Relate antecedent to emission of behavior & likelihood of consequence event • Changing behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences
Does your team use a function-based problem solving process? • Identify appropriate replacement behaviors that serve the same function as the problem behaviors. • Plan for systematic teaching of replacement behaviors as necessary. • Design environment to facilitate success by prompting/reinforcing replacement behaviors.
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Support Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Defining BSP/Targeted Intervention • When Should it Happen? What tools do we use to identify students in need of Tier II interventions? • When teacher reports indicate that a student is on the verge of failure, despite school-wide or classroom-wide strategies and procedures. • When school-wide data (SWIS) documents academic or behavioral problems that consistently distinguish a student from his or her peers. • When SWIS identifies a large number of students whose behavior serves the same function
Identifying Students • Absences & Tardies • In-school detentions • Suspensions • Number of SWIS referrals (by function) • Multiple office referrals • Recommendation by teacher • Recommendation by parent • Quick FBA’s (FACT Part A&B)
Response: Group Targeted Interventions • Targets groups of students that fail to respond to school-wide and classroom expectations but who are not currently engaging in extremely disruptive behavior; likely to be a student with both academic and behavioral challenges. Typically approximately 7% of school population. • Efficient – a similar set of strategies are used across a group needing similar levels of support • Effective – Decreasing problem behavior in classrooms, increasing academic engagement & decreasing office referrals
Challenges of Behavior Support • Resources (time & money) are scarce • Match level of support to level of challenges • Need an efficient and effective intermediate level intervention system that targets students at-risk but who are not currently engaging in severe problem behavior
Practical use of scarce resources • School-wide team OR Targeted team to design & monitor • Efficient system to identify those in need of more support • Technical competence • Functional assessment, support plan design • Information collection and use • If many students (>10) with less than intense needs, then Targeted Group Intervention. • If (a) small number of students, or (b) students with intense needs then use an Action Team or a Wraparound Team.
Targeted Group Interventions Group Based Programming Elements • Small group interventions based on descriptive functional assessment information. • Types of intervention strategies include; • Targeted social skills instruction (e.g., problem solving and conflict management), • Specifically structured opportunities for high rates of academic success. • Check-in/Check-Out • Check & Connect • Advisor/Advisee Groups • Homework Clubs
Critical Features of Targeted Group Interventions • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr) • Very low effort by teachers • Consistent with school-wide expectations • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school • Flexible intervention based on descriptive functional assessment • Continuous monitoring for decision-making
BEP Process BEP Plan Morning Check-in Daily Daily Teacher Evaluation Home Check-in Afternoon Check-in
Why do “Targeted Group” Interventions Work? • Improved structure • Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior. • System for linking student with at least one adult • Student chooses to participate • Increased feedback • Feedback occurs more often • Feedback is tied to student behavior • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded
Why do “Targeted Group” Interventions Work? • Increased frequency of acknowledgement/ reinforcement for appropriate behavior • Adult and peer attention • Linking school and home support • Organized to morph into a self-management system
Main Themes of Effective Interventions • Make the problem behavior irrelevant • Change the context so the problem does not arise • Make the problem behavior inefficient • Teach alternative skills that produce same effect as problem behavior • Exaggerate rewards for appropriate behavior • Make the problem behavior ineffective • Minimize the likelihood that a problem behavior will be rewarded.
Contextual Fit • Select support strategies based on • Values of implementers • Do implementers feel comfortable with procedures • Skills of implementers • Resources of implementers • Administrative support available to implementers • Expectation of effectiveness • Least intrusion for maximal effect
Your Thoughts…. • A High School identifies through SWIS data that over the past 3 years the freshman class has the highest number of office referrals with the main function being teacher attention. What would you suggest as group targeted interventions?
Your Thoughts… • When mid-term grades come out a middle school finds that a large number of students are failing core classes (LA & Math) and have the lowest homework completion rate of any grade? What group targeted interventions would you recommend?
One Step Further:Tools for Gathering Information • Routine Matrix FACTS (A&B) • Interviews - Functional Assessment Interview - Student Guided Functional Assessment Interview • Checklists - Problem Behavior Questionnaire • Records Review - academic, behavioral, evaluations • Observations - A-B-C Assessment (identify sequences of behavior) - Scatter Plots (plot behavior by date/time/activity)
Interview Questions…. • What is the likely function (intent) of the behavior; that is, why do you think the student behaves this way? What does the student get or avoid? • What behavior(s) might serve the same function (see question 9) for the student that is appropriate within the social/environmental context? • As well as who, what, when, where
Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/9th grade_____ Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________ Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.
Functional Assessment of Behavior“BIG IDEAS” • Functional behavior assessment is a problem solving process – a way to think about behavior systematically. “FBA can be done in your head.” • Functional assessment identifies the events that reliably predict AND maintain problem behavior.
Functional Assessment Outcomes • Operational Description of Problem Behavior • Organized by response classes, behavioral routines • Identification of events that reliably predict occurrence and nonoccurrence of problem behavior • Immediate antecedents and setting events • Identification of Maintaining Consequences (Function) • Hypothesis statement(s) • Direct Observation Data
Functional Assessment Pathway Maintaining Consequence THE FUNCTION “Get something” “Get away from Something” Problem Behavior Setting Event Triggering Event or Antecedent
FBA Expanded Consequences Antecedents Behavior (Outcome/Function) B C A Reinforcement Punishment Problem Behavior Appropriate Behavior Access Avoid/Escape Setting Events Immediate or or Goal: Decrease Goal: Acquire skill & Increase Fast Triggers Slow Triggers Occur immediately before a behavior Environmental factors that influence behavior, not immediate
When Sylvia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Avoid difficult tasks What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands
Rickie has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Rickie immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. Escape adult & peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention