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PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK. Erik de Graaff Delft University of Technology, Aalborg University UNESCO Chair in Problem Based Learning. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK. The origin of PBL PBL in Medicine McMaster – Maastricht

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problem based learning in engineering how to make it work

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK

Erik de Graaff

Delft University of Technology, Aalborg University

UNESCO Chair in Problem Based Learning

problem based learning in engineering how to make it work1
PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN ENGINEERING: HOW TO MAKE IT WORK
  • The origin of PBL
  • PBL in Medicine McMaster – Maastricht
  • Paradigm shift: from teaching to facilitation
  • PBL in Engineering The Aalborg model
  • Management of Change
assignment
Assignment

Each person has to come up with one advantage of PBL

Share the ideas in groups of 3-5 persons

Choose a top 3

in the beginning
In the beginning

Linkoping 72

Roskilde 72 and Aalborg University 74

Maastricht 72

McMaster, 68

Newcastle 76

  • Problems constitute the stimulus for learning
  • Working on real life problems promotes the development of problem solving skills
  • Self directed small student groups
  • Teachers are facilitators/guides
  • Problem orientation
  • Interdisciplinarity
  • Exemplary learning
  • Participant directed
  • Teams or group work
the early history of pbl
The early history of PBL
  • Don Woods coins the words PBL for his teaching in a chemistry class in McMaster’s university by the end of the sixties.
  • PBL chosen as the didactic method for the development of a new medical curriculum at McMaster’s university (1969).
  • Introduction of PBL in Maastricht, also for the development of a new medical curriculum.
  • Implementation of POBL in Engineering Education in Roskilde and Aalborg in Denmark
different versions of pbl
Different versions of PBL

Problem

Based

Learning

Based

Learning

Organized

Learning

Practice

Oriented

Learning

P

B

L

Phenomenon

Project

problem based learning pbl
Problem based learning (PBL)

PBL builds on pedagogic traditions like:

Maria Montessori: my playing is my learning

Jerôme Bruner: learning by discovery

William Killpatrick: whole hearted learning

Carl Rogers:student centered learning

The Harvard method: case based learning

slide9

Problem based

  • Project based / organised
  • Contextual learning
slide10

Participant directed

  • Team based learning
slide11

Theory-practice

  • Interdisciplinary learning
  • Exemplary learning
characteristics of pbl
Characteristics of PBL

Thematic curriculum structure

  • Integration of knowledge and skills
  • Integration of different domains
  • Focus on the learning process
  • Cooperative learning in small groups
  • Students responsible for their own learning
pbl entails
PBL entails:

A paradigm shift

From teaching to learning

From learning content to study activities

paradigm shift in educational design form follows function
Paradigm shift in educational design: form follows function

Educational form

  • Active participation in cooperating groups, dealing with insecurity and learning to take responsibility
  • Working on practice oriented projects and analyzing theoretically oriented problems
  • Critical reflection on performance

Educational functions

  • Insight in the relationship between technology and society
  • The development of a scientific attitude of critical reflection
  • The development of a sense responsibility and an independent personality
  • Acquisition of professional knowledge and skills
slide18

A Curriculum based on thematic modules

The Maastricht perspective

PBL Modules:

  • lasting six weeks
  • containing just some cases
  • integrating knowledge form different disciplines

Tutorial Groups

  • self-directed learning
  • Eight students in a group
  • cooperation and teamwork

Facilitated by a tutor:

  • guiding the process without taking the lead
  • guarding quality without interfering in the process
teacher roles in a pbl curriculum
Teacher roles in a PBL curriculum

De Graaff & Frijns, 1993

The teacher as:

  • Expert
  • Facilitator
  • Designing a stimulating environment for learning
  • Management of the learning process, including evaluation
  • Stimulates students to define their own learning goals and to direct their own learning process
what is a problem
WHAT IS A PROBLEM?
  • A Difficulty
  • Something complicated
  • A Puzzle, a Riddle
  • A Challenge
  • An Assignment

In Engineering: A project

pbl in engineering the aalborg model
PBL in Engineering: the Aalborg Model

Students learn from working on real life problems

as a team of engineers:

  • Problem Based
  • Project Organized
  • Cooperation in small groups
dimensions of the educational process
Dimensions of the Educational Process

situation

teacher

focus

problem

workplace

professional

student

product

lbd

lbd

lbd

lbd

lbd

input

throughput

output

frontal

frontal

frontal

frontal

frontal

competence

teacher

didactic

classroom

discipine

dimensions of the educational process1
Dimensions of the Educational Process

PBL

POL

POL

POL

PBL

POL

situation

teacher

focus

POL

problem

workplace

professional

student

product

input

throughput

output

PBL

PBL

PBL

competence

teacher

didactic

classroom

discipine

differences between projects and pbl
Differences between Projects and PBL

Projects

PBL

Type of problem

Time per problem

Number of students

Role of the teachers

Expected results

Assessment

a real life task

broad range

small groups (4-8)

expert

a finished product

product and process

phenomenon

about one week

small groups (6-12)

process facilitator

learning results

individual test of learning results

slide26

Results of a Survey among employers of engineering graduates (Ingeniøren, 2008)Questions: Are there one or more institutions which you find particular good at developing engineering education according to the needs of society and companies?

the tripod of successful innovation
The tripod of successful innovationA question of balance

Educational Philosophy PBL

Vision on teaching

and learning

Vision on Man and Society

Vision on the profession

managing change strategies for implementing pbl
Managing change: Strategies for implementing PBL

Chin and Benne (1985) distinguish three types of strategies that can be applied in changing an organization:

  • Empirical-rational strategies
  • Normative-re-educative strategies
  • Power-coercive strategies
factors in managing complex change
Factors in Managing Complex Change

consensus

skills

incentives

resources

action plan

confusion

+

+

+

+

=

vision

skills

incentives

resources

action plan

sabotage

+

+

+

+

=

vision

consensus

incentives

resources

action plan

anxiety

+

+

+

+

=

vision

consensus

skills

resources

action plan

resistance

+

+

+

+

=

vision

consensus

skills

incentives

action plan

frustration

+

+

+

+

=

vision

consensus

skills

incentives

resources

pointless

+

+

+

+

=

vision

consensus

skills

incentives

resources

action plan

change

+

+

+

+

+

=

after: Thousand &Villa 1995

key features in the success of pbl
Key Features in the Success of PBL
  • Students responsible for their own learning process
  • A clear purpose of all learning activities
  • Sufficient attention for Communication Skills
  • Balanced support from Technical experts to overcome knowledge barriers
assignment1
Assignment
  • Each person has to come up with one advantage of PBL
  • Share the ideas in groups of 3-5 persons
  • Choose a top 3

What is the difference ?

any questions

?

Can I get an ice cream?

Any Questions ?

When is Mama coming back?

Are we going to the zoo ?

slide39
39e SEFI Annual Conference 2011, Lisbon, 28-30 September, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal

REEN 2011

Madrid Oct. 3-6