Theories & Models in Outdoor Education. Educ 5165. Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold. (Anonymous saying about “life”). Foundations of Outdoor Education. •Experiential Education •Environmental Education
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Theories & Models in Outdoor Education Educ 5165
Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold. (Anonymous saying about “life”)
Foundations of Outdoor Education •Experiential Education •Environmental Education •Adventure Education Which follow the parent disciplines of •Education and Physical Education • Psychology Philosophy
Experiential Education Experiential education is a process through which the learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences (AEE, 11/3/94)
Experiential Learning Requisites (Dewey, 1938) • Simple NOT Easy • Highly Planned NOT Spontaneous • Meaningful NOT Meaning-less (exp. For sake of exp.) • Authentic NOT Contrived • Rooted in Empiricism NOT Laissez faire • Constructs from Personal Meaning
Individual MORE THAN Group • Structured NOT Phenomenological • Requires Judgement of Instructor NOT Unguided • Understanding Cause & Effect requires REFLECTION
Essential Elements of Experiential Education (Terwilliger, 1995) • RELEVANCE: of the experience to the learner • PROGRESSIVE: experiences build on past knowledge & experiences • AUTHENTIC:outcomes are concrete with real consequences COMBINED WITH THE OUTWARD BOUND MODEL: • CHALLENGING:important to stay w/in potential ability • REFLECTION:”processing” helps to shift from extrinsic to intrinsic benefits
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
A GREENPRINT FOR MINNESOTA(MOEE,1993) MINNESOTA’S GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: • TO UNDERSTAND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS; • TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT;
TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE, DEVELOP, AND USE PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF INDIVIDUALS, INSTITUTIONS, AND NATIONS REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES; • TO BE ABLE TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BEFORE DECIDING ON ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION; • TO UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL COMPLEMENTARY NATURE OF MULTIPLE USES OF THE ENVIRONMENT; • TO PROVIDE EXPERIENCES TO ASSIST CITIZENS TO INCREASE THEIR SENSITIVITY AND STEWARDSHIP FOR THE ENVIRONMENT; • TO PROVIDE INFORMATION CITIZENS NEED TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS ABOUT ACTIONS TO TAKE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES.
Six Principles of Interpretation(Freeman Tilden, 1957, p9) • If it doesn’t relate, it is sterile • Information is not interpretation. (Rather, it is revelation based upon information.) • Interpretation is an art. (Any art is teachable) • The chief aim is provocation (not instruction) • It should present a whole. • It should be age appropriate (not a “dilution” of adult material.)
Approaches to Environmental Education • Nature Appreciation • Wilderness Preservation • Earth Salvation • Environmental Issues Resolution • Species Protection • Environmental Ethics • Science Education outside
What is the outcome of in-service training? In-service can deal with these: Action Skills Situational Factors Knowledge of Action Strategies Knowledge of Issues Responsible Environmental Behavior Intention to Act? Attitudes Personality Factors Locus of Control Personal Responsibility Model of Responsible Behavior (Hines, et al., 1986)
Vocational Studies Physical Education Life Sciences EE Mathematics Earth Sciences Social Studies Arts, Humanities Communications The Multi-disciplinary (Infusion) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
Vocational Studies Physical Education Life Sciences EE Mathematics Earth Sciences Social Studies Arts, Humanities Communications The Inter-disciplinary (Insertion or Mono-disciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
Learning Theory • Constructivism (Wals, 1987) • Concept Mapping (Novak, 1977; Bosquet, 1981) • Personal Meaning (Ausubel, 1963) • Brain Based (Whole Brain) Learning (Hart, 1983) • Native American Learning Styles (Reyes, 1989) • Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson)
Essential Elements of Constructivism(Terwilliger, 1995) • PRECONCEPTIONS MATTER • RELEVANCE(PERSONAL MEANING) • CONCEPTUAL LEARNING(V. FACTUAL) • COGNITIVE DISSONANCE(FOLLOWED BY RESTRUCTURE:FREEZE-THAW-REFREEZE) • SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT (PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY: MASLOW) • ABILITY TO GENERATE, CREATE, PRODUCE, EXHIBIT, DEMONSTRATE
Constructivist Teaching Sequence(Driver & Oldham, 1986) • Orientation (motivation) • Elicitation (awareness) • Restructuring (conflict, alternatives) • Application(consolidation, reinforcement) • Review = reflection (learn about learning)
Native American Learning (Reyes, 1989) • Use family instructional techniques: Demonstration & imitation • Let children learn from children • Teach through stories and legends • Utilize visual skills (observation, visual discrimination, and spatial configuration) • Employ active learning strategies • Advance holistic intuitive learning (process information from whole to part to understand unity in the large situation)
Developmental Stages of Environmental Literacy • Survival • Skills’ Acquisition • Relationships with the land and its inhabitants • Metaphysical feeling “connected” to the place; A feeling of harmony
Learning Stages in Teaching Environmental Literacy • SENSORY AWARENESS • SKILLS’ DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING • RELATIONSHIPS (ECOLOGICAL) • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AWARENESS • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ACTION
Six Principles of Interpretation(Tilden, F., 1957. p. 9) • I. ANY INTERPRETATION THAT DOES NOT SOMEHOW RELATE WHAT IS BEING DISPLAYED OR DESCRIBED TO SOMETHING WITHIN THE PERSONALITY OR EXPERIENCE OF THE VISITOR WILL BE STERILE.
II. INFORMATION, AS SUCH, IS NOT INTERPRETATION.INTERPRETATION IS REVELATION BASED UPON INFORMATION.
III. INTERPRETATION IS AN ART, WHICH COMBINES MANY ARTS, WHETHER THE MATERIALS PRESENTED ARE SCIENTIFIC, HISTORICAL, OR ARCHITECTURAL.ANY ART IS IN SOME DEGREE TEACHABLE.
IV.The Chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction but provocation. • V. INTERPRETATION SHOULD AIM TO PRESENT A WHOLE RATHER THAN A PART, AND MUST ADDRESS ITSELF TO THE WHOLE MAN (SIC) RATHER THAN ANY PHASE.
VI. INTERPRETATION ADDRESSED TO CHILDREN SHOULD NOT BE DILUTION OF THE PRESENTATION TO ADULTS, BUT SHOULD FOLLOW A FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT APPROACH.
V. Adaptive Dissonance, Mastery, and Attendant Reconstruction (Anxiety, Mastery, and Reconstruction) VI. Summary Golins, G., Walsh, V. (1975)
The Outward Bound Process I. The Learner Motivated - State of readiness II. Unique Physical Environment The use of a novel environment to promote self awareness/ self growth
III. Unique Social Environment Placing people with different backgrounds and abilities together to work toward a common goal creates an interdependence. IV. Presentation of a Characteristic Set of Problems which Facilitate Mastery
A. Prescriptive & Organized B. Progressive C. Concrete D. Manageable E. Consequential Every activity has a risk of some sort F. Holistic Involves emotional, mental, and physical components.
Vocational Studies Life Sciences Physical Sciences Earth Sciences Mathematics EE Social Studies Arts, Humanities Communications The Interdisciplinary (Monodisciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
Vocational Studies Life Sciences Physical Sciences Earth Sciences Mathematics EE Social Studies Arts, Humanities Communications The Multidisciplinary (Infusion) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
Developmental Stages of Environmental Literacy (Gilbertson) • SURVIVAL • SKILLS’ ACQUISITION • RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE LAND AND IT’S INHABITANTS • METAPHYSICAL FEELING “CONNECTED” TO THE PLACE; FEELING OF HARMONY
LEARNING STAGES IN TEACHING ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY(GILBERTSON) • SENSORY AWARENESS • SKILLS’ DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING • RELATIONSHIPS (ECOLOGICAL) • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AWARENESS • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ACTION
The Outdoor Adventure Pursuits Mix PEOPLE •MOTIVATIONS •SKILLS •SOCIAL ORIENTATION •PREFERENCE OPPORTUNITIES •SETTINGS •PROGRAMS •SUPPORT FACTORS •ACTIVITIES REWARDS •Psychological •SOCIOLOGICAL •EDUCATIONAL •PHYSICAL
Unforeseen beneficial circumstances Incorrect decision making Outcome Personal inability's Proper training greater control loss of control Poor training Personal abilities Unforeseen detrimental circumstances Correct decision making Influencing Factors on the Outcome of a Risk Activity
FEAR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Technique Definition Comments •Systematic desensitization •Flooding •Modeling •Rehearsal •Gradual exposure to source •Useful, time-consuming •Prolonged exposure to fear •Often inappropriate, can be debilitating •Learning new coping methods •Powerful, can use instructor behavior •Practicing different adaptive behaviors •Very useful but requires preplanning and time
Attitude-Behavior Model (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) Beliefs about activity Attitude about activity Intentions toward activity Behavior with activity
Direct Experience *EnvironmentalEducation (Formal) *Interpretation (Non-formal) EcologicalRelationships Ecotourism Interpersonal GrowthorEducational Skills PhysicalSkills Adventure Education A Model of Outdoor Education
Paradigm Construct Concept Facts