Plant Reproduction Reem Abdalla
Reproductionin Plants Reproduction means producing new living things. Animals and plants reproduce to make new individuals of the same species.
There are two main of reproducing in plants: Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction is reproducing plants similar to itself without the use of sex. Asexual reproduction only requires one parent All the offspring are identical to the parent as well as having the same genes. They are called Clones
The budding in a Hydra that live in lakes. Hydra The budding in Yeast is asexual reproduction, usually used in bread. Yeast Spore formation in bread mould is also considered asexual reproduction, found in moldy bread. When it bursts the spores are spread and they then grow. Bread Mould Some Examples:
Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction is reproducing using sex. Some plants can be unisex (only has 1 sexual part, male or female) and others bisexual (has both the sexual organs of a male and a female like a flower).
Flowers Flowers are an example of a plant that use sexual reproduction to reproduce. Flowers have both the organs of a female and a male, making it bisexual. You will see the structure of a flower and its parts as well as their role/function in the process of reproduction.
The pistil is the sexual organ of a female. It is divided into three parts, the stigma at the top, the middle is the style and last part is called a ovary which contains the ovules. The stamen is the sexual organ of a male. It is divided into 2 parts, the anther which contains the pollen and the filament. Stamen Pistil
Parts and their Function • Stamen: • Anther: Contains the pollen, it eventually bursts and the pollen travels… • Filament • Pistil: • Stigma: It is sticky with pollen and it serves as the ‘entrance’ for the pollen as well • Style: The pollen travels down this part to get to the ovary 3. Ovary: stores the ovules • Ovules: they fuse with the pollen to create a seed • Petals: colorful to attract bees and other ‘pollinators’
How It All Fits Together… When the anther of the stamen burst and releases the pollen within it, the pollen it quickly spread, whether it rides the wind or travels on other animals etc, which is called pollination. When the pollen reaches another flower it enters through the stigma of a pistil, down its style and to the ovary. The nucleus of the ovules and the pollen then fuse. When this process is complete, the flower is then ‘fertilized.’ After this has been completed, the whole structure falls off except the ovary, which then makes a fruit and the fused ovules and pollen make the seed. The flower is now developed.
Pollination is when the pollen from the stamen reaches a pistil of a flower. Some examples of Pollinators that carry the pollen: Humming Birds Butterflies Honey Bees
Seeds The result, as I mentioned before, of an ovule and pollen is a seed. There are two types of seeds: Dicot Seed Monocot Seed I will also talk to you about the conditions they need to germinate and how they do so.
A Dicot seed can easily split in half and contains 2 leaves. A monocot seed is a one piece seed and contains only 1 leaf. Monocot Seed Dicot Seed
About the Dicot Seed Di comes from the Greek Dis which means 2. It has a soft outside covering called a seed coat and it will probably slip off easily. It also has a slit in the middle, making it easy to split in half and view its contents. Inside is a small plant called an embryo the the two large parts are called cotyledons, which give the plant food as it grows. The plumule emerge upon germination, enlarge and become green to become leaves. The upper part of the embryo is the epicotyl and the middle part is the hypocotyl and the lower part of the embryo is the radicle.
Germination of a Seed Germination is the early stage in the growing or development of a seed. However, for this process to occur, it needs certain conditions and it follows several steps which I will be taking you through.
Condition for Germination Soil Nutrients Right amount of water Sunlight The correct temperature
Stages of Germination First, the radicle emerges and inserts itself in the soil so it may absorb the water and anchor the seed to the ground. Next the hypocotyl emerges and helps the plant raise itself, the seed coat has already come off. The cotyledon then opens to release the leaves and they grow and enlarge, the cotyledons eventually fall of the plant.
BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://vcebiology.edublogs.org/files/2010/05/asexual-reproduction-hydra.jpg • http://www.saburchill.com/ans02/images2/210807005.jpg • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sarracenia.com/photos/genlisea/genliviola004.jpg&imgrefurl=http://qwikstep.eu/search/what-is-asexual-reproduction-in-plants.html&usg=__UahNvSs5bptWyW8_81vdcde5zOY=&h=500&w=750&sz=242&hl=en&start=9&zoom=1&itbs=1&tbnid=0oS2H0yGT4xmkM:&tbnh=94&tbnw=141&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dasexual%2Bplants%26hl%3Den%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&ei=Pn34TZHMHMeGrAfq6vi3CA • http://scienceforums.com/uploads/1282315011/gallery_4447_5_2991.jpg • http://www.pcsd.k12.ny.us/bwoods/Regents%20Biology/Chapter%2020%20Mitosis%20and%20Asexual%20Reproduction/Asexual%20Reproduction/AsexualReproductionBread%20MoldSpores.gif • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c5/Orchidflower3.jpg • http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/les8/les8gifs/polgifs8/pistil.gif • http://schools.look4.net.nz/science/biology/plant/how_plants_reproduce/files10/stamen.gif • http://www.cic-caracas.org/departments/science/images/08flower1.jpg • http://greenpreferred.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/honey-bee.jpg • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-wmQZt4lkG8o/TWIE9IDOxBI/AAAAAAAAA0Y/YzrjR8h_s_g/s1600/Hummingbird.jpg • http://www.globalanimal.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/monarchpurpleflowers.jpeg • http://www.thesuperfoodco.co.uk/images/whole-hemp-seeds.jpg • http://library.thinkquest.org/3715/mono.gif • http://library.thinkquest.org/3715/dicot.gif • http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/seed_structure.gif • http://library.thinkquest.org/3715/seeds.html • http://www.answers.com/topic/cotyledon • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_conditions_are_necessasry_for_seed_germination&alreadyAsked=1&rtitle=What_are_the_conditions_needed_for_germination • http://www.nicerweb.com/bio1151/Locked/media/ch38/38_10SeedGermination-dicot.jpg • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTZih16DUB4&feature=related