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Plant Reproduction. W O R K T O G E T H E R. Is a seed alive? Is a fruit alive? Answer as completely as you can on your own paper. (Hang on to your paper until the end of class.). Asexual Reproduction.

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  • Is a seed alive? Is a fruit alive? Answer as completely as you can on your own paper. (Hang on to your paper until the end of class.)
asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction is natural “cloning.” Parts of the plant, such as leaves or stems, produce roots and become an independent plant.
  • List some benefits and some drawbacks to asexual reproduction.
sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction requires fusion of male cells in the pollen grain with female cells in the ovule.
  • List some advantages and drawbacks to sexual reproduction.
terms to know
Terms to know:
  • Haploid: having a single set of chromosomes in each cell.
  • Diploid: having two sets of chromosomes in each cell.
  • Mitosis: cell division, which produces two genetically identical cells.
  • Meiosis: reduction division, which produces four haploid reproductive cells.
alternation of generations
Alternation of Generations
  • Plants have a double life cycle with two distinct forms:
    • Sporophyte: diploid, produce haploid spores by meiosis.
    • Gametophyte: haploid, produce gametes by mitosis.
non flowering plants
Non-flowering plants
  • Mosses, ferns, and related plants have motile, swimming sperm.
  • What kind of environmental conditions would be required for reproduction in these plants?
  • What kinds of limits does external reproduction impose on these plants?
conifers
Conifers
  • Conifers (also non-flowering plants) have reduced gametophytes.
    • Male gametophyte is contained in a dry pollen grain.
    • Female gametophyte is a few cells inside of the structures that become the seed.
conifer pollination
Conifer pollination
  • Conifers are wind-pollinated plants.
  • Chance allows some pollen to land on the scales of female cones.
  • Pollen germinates, grows a pollen tube into the egg to allow sperm to fertilize the egg.
  • What are some advantages and disadvantages to wind pollination?
pollen go betweens
Pollen go-betweens
  • Showy flowers are the result of selection for more efficient pollination strategies.
  • Flower parts are modified leaves. Those that were brightly colored attracted insects in search of pollen.
  • Why would insects search for pollen? What other rewards do flowers offer?
  • What are advantages and disadvantages to relying on insects as pollinators?
incomplete flowers
Incomplete flowers
  • Flowers are complete if they have all parts, and perfect if they have both male and female parts.
  • Grass flowers: incomplete, usually imperfect (separate male and female flowers)
  • A tulip is complete (though the sepals are the same color as the petals) and perfect.
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  • Use what you have learned about plant life cycles to explain why most mosses and ferns live in moist environments, but flowering plants can live just about anywhere.