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Plant Reproduction

Plant Reproduction Chapter 42 Reproductive Development Angiosperms represent an evolutionary innovation with their production of flowers and fruits Plants go through developmental changes leading to reproductive maturity by adding structures to existing ones with meristems

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Plant Reproduction

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  1. Plant Reproduction Chapter 42

  2. Reproductive Development Angiosperms represent an evolutionary innovation with their production of flowers and fruits Plants go through developmental changes leading to reproductive maturity by adding structures to existing ones with meristems -A germinating seed becomes a vegetative plant through morphogenesis

  3. Reproductive Development Before flowers can form, plants must undergo a phase change to prepare a plant to respond to internal and external signals

  4. Reproductive Development Phase change can be morphologically obvious or very subtle -In oak trees, lower branches (juvenile phase) cling to their leaves in the fall -Juvenile ivy makes adventitious roots and has alternating leaf phyllotaxy -Mature ivy lacks adventitious roots, has spiral phyllotaxy, and can make flowers

  5. Reproductive Development

  6. Reproductive Development Flowering is the default state In Arabidopsis, the gene embryonic flower (EMF) prevents early flowering -emf mutants lacking a functional EMF protein flower immediately

  7. Reproductive Development The juvenile-to-adult transition can be induced by overexpressing a flowering gene -LEAFY (LFY) was cloned in Arabidopsis -Overexpression of LFY in aspen, causes flowering to occur in weeks instead of years

  8. Flower Production Four genetically regulated pathways to flowering have been identified 1. The light-dependent pathway 2. The temperature-dependent pathway 3. The gibberellin-dependent pathway 4. The autonomous pathway Plants can rely primarily on one pathway, but all four pathways can be present

  9. Light-Dependent Pathway Also termed the photoperiodic pathway -Sensitive to the amount of darkness a plant receives in each 24-hour period -Short-day plants flower when daylight becomes shorter than a critical length -Long-day plants flower when daylight becomes longer -Day-neutral plants flower when mature regardless of day length

  10. Light-Dependent Pathway In obligate long- or short-day plants there is a sharp distinction between short and long nights, respectively In facultative long- or short-day plants, the photoperiodic requirement is not absolute -Flowering occurs more rapidly or slowly depending on the length of day

  11. Light-Dependent Pathway Using light as cue allows plants to flower when environmental conditions are favorable -Manipulation of photoperiod in greenhouses ensures that short-day poinsettias flower in time for the winter holidays

  12. Light-Dependent Pathway Flowering is regulated by phytochromes (red-light receptors) and cryptochrome (blue light receptor) via the gene CONSTANS (CO) -Phytochromes regulate CO transcription -CO mRNA is low at night and increase at daybreak -Cryptochrome modulates CO protein level -Stabilizes CO and protects it from proteasome degradation in the day

  13. Light-Dependent Pathway CO is a transcription factor that turns on other genes, resulting in the expression of LFY -LFY is a key gene that “tells” a meristem to switch over to flowering One intriguing possibility is that CO is the elusive flowering hormone -Or that it affects such a flowering signal

  14. Temperature-Dependent Pathway Some plants require a period of chilling before flowering called vernalization -It is necessary for some seeds or plants in later stages of development Analysis of plant mutants reveals that vernalization is a separate flowering pathway

  15. Gibberellin-Dependent Pathway Gibberellin binds to the promoter of LFY -Enhances its expression, thereby promoting flowering In Arabidopsis and other species, decreased levels of gibberellins delay flowering

  16. Autonomous Pathway The autonomous pathway does not depend on external cues except for basic nutrition It allows day-neutral plants to “count” nodes and “remember” node location -Tobacco plants produce a uniform number of nodes before flowering -Upper axillary buds of flowering tobacco remember their position if rooted or grafted

  17. Autonomous Pathway

  18. Autonomous Pathway

  19. Autonomous Pathway How do shoots “count” and “remember”? -Experiments using bottomless pots have shown that it is the addition of roots, and not the loss of leaves, that inhibits flowering A balance between floral promoting and inhibiting signals may regulate flowering

  20. Model for Flowering The four flowering pathways lead to an adult meristem becoming a floral meristem -They activate or repress the inhibition of floral meristem identity genes -Key genes: LFY and AP1 (APETALA1) -These two genes turn on floral organ identity genes -Define the four concentric whorls

  21. Model for Flowering The ABC model proposes that three organ identity gene classes specify the four whorls 1. Class A genes alone – Sepals 2. Class A and B genes together – Petals 3. Class B and C genes together – Stamens 4. Class C genes alone – Carpels When any one class is missing, aberrant floral organs occur in predictable positions

  22. Model for Flowering Recently, two other classes were identified -Class D genes are essential for carpel formation -Class E genes (SEPALATA) -SEP proteins interact with class A, B and C proteins that are needed for the development of floral organs Thus, a modified ABC model was proposed

  23. Flower Structure Floral organs are thought to have evolved from leaves A complete flower has four whorls -Calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium An incomplete flower lacks one or more of these whorls

  24. Flower Structure Calyx = Consists of flattened sepals Corolla = Consists of fused petals Androecium = Collective term for stamens -A stamen consists of a filament and an anther Gynoecium = Collective term for carpels -A carpel consists of an ovule, ovary, style, and stigma

  25. Malestructure Femalestructure

  26. Trends in Floral Evolution Floral specialization 1. Separate floral parts have been grouped 2. Floral parts have been lost or reduced -Wild geranium

  27. Trends in Floral Evolution Floral symmetry -Primitive flowers are radially symmetrical -Advanced flowers are bilaterally symmetrical -Orchid

  28. Gamete Production Plant sexual life cycles are characterized by an alternation of generations -Diploid sporophyte  haploid gametophyte In angiosperms, the gametophyte generation is very small and is completely enclosed within the tissues of the parent sporophyte -Male gametophyte = Pollen grains -Female gametophyte = Embryo sac

  29. Gamete Production Gametes are produced in separate, specialized structures of the flower Reproductive organs of angiosperms differ from those of animals in two ways: 1. Both male and female structures usually occur together in the same individual 2. Reproductive structures are not permanent parts of the adult individual

  30. Pollen Formation Anthers contain four microsporangia which produce microspore mother cells (2n) -Each microspore mother cell produces four haploid (n) microspores through meiosis -Each microspore develops by mitosis into a pollen grain (microgametophyte) -The generative cell in the pollen grain will later divide to form two sperm cells

  31. Embryo Sac Formation Within each ovule, a diploid microspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores -Usually only one survives -Enlarges and undergoes repeated mitotic divisions to produce eight haploid nuclei -Enclosed within a seven-celled embryo sac

  32. Pollination Pollination is the process by which pollen is placed on the stigma -Self-pollination = Pollen from a flower’s anther pollinates stigma of the same flower -Cross-pollination = Pollen from anther of one flower pollinates another flower’s stigma -Also termed outcrossing

  33. Pollination Successful pollination in many angiosperms depends on regular attraction of pollinators Flowers & animal pollinators have coevolved resulting in specialized relationships -Bees are the most common insect pollinators

  34. Pollination Bees typically visit yellow or blue flowers -Yellow flowers are marked in distinctive ways that are normally invisible to us -Bull’s eye or landing strip

  35. Pollination Flowers that are visited regularly by butterflies often have flat “landing platforms” Flowers that are visited regularly by moths are often white, or pale in color -They also tend to be heavily scented

  36. Pollination Flowers that are visited regularly by birds often have a red color -Usually inconspicuous to insects Hummingbirds obtain nectar from flowers that match the length and shape of their beaks

  37. Pollination Other animals, including bats and small rodents, may aid in pollination -The signals here are also species-specific Monkeys are attracted to orange and yellow -They can thus disperse fruits of this color in their habitat

  38. Pollination Some angiosperms are wind-pollinated -A characteristic of early seed plants Flowers of these plants are small, green, and odorless, with reduced or absent corollas -Often grouped and hanging down in tassels Stamen- and carpel-containing flowers are usually separated between individuals -Strategy that greatly promotes outcrossing

  39. Pollination

  40. Pollination Self-pollinating plants usually have small, relatively inconspicuous flowers that shed pollen directly into the stigma Self-pollination is favored in stable environments 1. Plants do not need to be visited by animals to produce seed 2. Offspring are more uniform and probably better adapted to their environment

  41. Pollination Several evolutionary strategies promote outcrossing 1. Separation of male and female structures in space -Dioecious plants produce only ovule or only pollen -Monoecious plants produce male and female flowers on the same plant

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