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Plant Reproduction. making more of a species. Sexual Reproduction. Asexual Reproduction. Two Forms of Plant Reproduction. Meiosis + Fertilization. Mitosis + Vegetative Propagation. Definitions. 2 Types of Reproduction:

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plant reproduction

Plant Reproduction

making more of a species

two forms of plant reproduction
Sexual

Reproduction

Asexual

Reproduction

Two Forms of Plant Reproduction

Meiosis

+

Fertilization

Mitosis

+

Vegetative

Propagation

definitions
Definitions

2 Types of Reproduction:

  • Sexual Reproduction – when a seed is made that will reproduce a plant. Requires 2 plants.
  • Asexual Reproduction – Utilizing a part or parts of 1 parent plant. The new plant is a clone (exact duplication) of its parent
slide4

Sexual reproduction occurs in many kinds of plants in different ways. Some plants form pollen that fertilizes eggs in the flower or cone, others produce spores.

slide6

The petals attract insects and birds to encourage pollination.

The stigma, style, and ovary make up the female structure – the pistil. The ovary houses the ovules (eggs) before and after fertilization

The anther and filament make up the male structure – the stamen - that produces the pollen.

summary stages of reproduction
Summary: Stages of Reproduction
  • pollination – the transfer of pollen from the stamens to the pistils of a flower
  • fertilization (seed production) – the joining of an egg cell and a sperm cell
  • seed dispersal – moving seeds from one place to another
  • germination – the sprouting of a plant from a seed
pollination

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from anther to the stigma of the carpel

    • self-pollination (same plant)
    • cross-pollination (different plant; same species)
  • Pollen grain germinates (forms pollen tube)
  • Double fertilization occurs

Pollination

slide9

Plant Reproduction Basics

  • Sperm travels to embryo sac by way of a pollen tube
  • Once sperm fertilizes egg, zygote becomes embryo (within ovule)
  • Ovule develops into seed
  • Ovary becomes fruit
  • Germination of seed creates new sporophyte (which develops into a mature organism)
figure 40 14

POLLEN TUBE GROWTH AND FERTILIZATION

Figure 40-14

Double

fertilization

Pollen

grain

Stigma

Pollen tube

Primary

endosperm

nucleus

(3n)

Tube-cell

nucleus

Sperm

Style

Synergid

Ovary

Zygote

(2n)

Micropyle

2. The tube-cell nucleus

moves into pollen tube,

and the generative cell

nucleus divides by mitosis

to form two sperm in

pollen tube.

4. One sperm unites with

egg to form zygote.

The other fuses with the

two polar nuclei to form

endosperm (nutrient tissue).

1. Pollen grain germinates

on the stigma. Pollen

tube begins growing

down the style.

3. Pollen tube completes

growth toward the egg by

passing through microphyle

and discharging the two

sperm into a cell adjacent

to egg.

parts of a seed
Parts of a Seed
  • Embryo- The young multi-cellular organism before it emerges from the seed
  • Endosperm- A source of stored food, consisting primarily of starches
  • Seed Coat- Consists of 1 or more protective layers that encase the seed
  • Cotyledon- A seed leaf that stores food in the form of starch and protein for use by the embryo
  • Epicotyl- The portion of the embryonic stem above the point at which the stem is attached to the cotyledon(s)
slide13

Getting the seeds dispersed (moving them)

  • Flowering plants have different adaptations to enable their seeds to be dispersed as far away as possible.
  • The different methods of seed dispersal are…
    • by wind
    • by animals
    • by water
    • by splitting open forcefully
germination
Germination
  • Once the seed has been dispersed, it must germinate in order to grow.
  • Some seeds do not grow right away because they become dormant.
  • Dormant – Resting stage, no active growth
germination1
Germination
  • Germination – A seed sprouting or starting to grow
  • To germinate the seed must be placed in certain favorable conditions. Seeds need:
    • Water
    • Air
    • Temperature
    • Light
summary stages of reproduction1
Summary: Stages of Reproduction
  • pollination – the transfer of pollen from the stamens to the pistils of a flower
  • fertilization (seed production) – the joining of an egg cell and a sperm cell
  • seed dispersal – moving seeds from one place to another
  • germination – the sprouting of a plant from a seed