The French and Indian War… The North American Theater of the Seven Years’ War
Learning Targets for the Day • You should be able to identify the major players in the French & Indian War • You should be able to cite the four primary reasons why the French & Indian War began • You should be able to analyze the reasons why Native Americans aligned with either the French or the British
Just so you know… • This conflict spanned the entire globe: Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines • Countries involved: Great Britain, France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Saxony, Spain & Russia • We are going to focus on the North American theater of war: The French & Indian War
Who were the major players? The British The French The Iroquois
Spanish, French & British Colonies circa 1700 British Colonies New France New Spain Disputed Areas Boundary of Iroquois League
What were the major causes of tension? • Land, land, land • French & British coexist in North America for nearly 100 years • BUT, both are seeking to expand their territory • Problem: France and Britain both claim the Ohio River Valley as their own! • Zoinks!
What were the major causes of tension? • Both French and British ignored the plight of the Native American • Results in animosity between the Native American and the settlers • Great Britain also has many more settlers than France resulting in greater enmity
What were the major causes of tension? • Religion • British settlers practiced what faith? • Denominations of Protestantism • French settlers practiced what faith? • Catholicism • What problem may this create? • British feared that their religious freedoms may be limited with increased French presence on the continent, and allegiance to the Pope
What were the major causes of tension? Make dams…not war! • FUR! Namely, beaver fur! • Beaver Wars (1640 – 1701) fought between French and their allies & Iroquois Confederation • French allies: Huron, Algonquians and the Mohicans • Beavers growing scarce in Iroquois territories • Uses for Beaver Fur: • Native Indians traded the Beaver pelts for advanced weapons, tools, beads, European goods • Beaver hats = status symbol for position and wealth; hat sales were extremely important source of income for English & French
Native Americans Choose Sides • Indians did not want to side with either, but had to make a choice • Both France and Britain tried to gain Indian support
British Colonies New France New Spain Disputed Areas Boundary of Iroquois League
French Trappers Traders Lived amongst the land Married Native American women Adopted Native American ways Algonquin & Huron Britain Lowered price of trade goods More powerful Cleared land for farms Ignored Indian rights Enslaved Native Americans Iroquois Enemies of Huron & Algonquin (and still hostile from Beaver Wars) Choosing Sides
British Advantages • Alliance between English and Iroquois (6 Indian nations: Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and the Tuscarora). • Stronger army and navy, and better trained men • English settlers (1.5 million) outnumbered French settlers (75,000) 15x
French Advantages • Extensive system of forts in the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes region • Single system of command… • What about the colonists? • Better relationship with Native Americans due to trade (hunters, trappers and traders) and less settlement • French better suited to fighting in wilderness
Colonies could not agree on a united defense 13 separate colonial assemblies could not act quickly Fighting “style” British Disadvantages
French Disadvantages • Difficult to defend • Smaller population
Throw Down…1747-1750 • Ohio Company formed by Virginian land speculators granted 200,000 acres by the king • What country did these men pay allegiance to? • France’s response: build forts along the Ohio River Valley and fortify with 2,000 soldiers
Throw Down…1753 Oh no you didn’t! • Virginian governor’s response: • Sends a guy named George Washington to deliver a message: • “France, you better get out or else.” • France’s reply: “You can’t make us! You’re not the boss of us!” • Washington returns to Virginia with his tail between his legs… Robert Dinwiddie
Throw Down…1754 Go Steelers?!? Wait, who are the Steelers? • Fast forward one year: • Governor sends Washington and a crew (approx 36 men) to build a fort at the forks of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers…where is that?!? • Problem: The French had already begun building a fort in the same place (500 men) • Named after the governor of New France: Fort Duquesne!
What to do now?!? • Washington moves his men 50 miles south to Great Meadow • May 28, 1754: Washington surrounds French forces with the help of the Seneca Indian chief (member of the Iroquois nation) • French had 13 casualties and 21 captured • British had 1 casualty and a few wounded • Became known as Jumonville Glen after the French leader killed there • First battle of the war…holla!
Fort (of) Necessity • In five days, Washington and his troops build a fort (June 3, 1754) • One month later, on July 3, 600 French and 100 Indians fought Washington and his men. • British casualties much worse than French. • At midnight, signed truce • …Although it was in French and Washington couldn’t read French! • Washington surrendered fort to French.
The Albany Congress, June 19th – July 11th, 1754 • The first meeting of the colonies to discuss forging a union of the 13 colonies • 7 of the 13 attended: • CT, MD, MA, NH, NY, PA & RI • Proposed union: each state would send delegates to the council, a president would be elected
The Albany Plan of Union • Proposed by Benjamin Franklin • Focus: Indian relations, military preparedness, trade regulations • Albany Congress say, “Heck yeah…” • But the individual colonies REJECT the plan…why? This is what I looked like during the French & Indian War!
General Edward “Bulldog” Braddock • British want control of entire Ohio River Valley • Where would be the most strategic location to control? • Braddock sent to capture FortDuquesne…problem resided in his military tactics • Use to fighting in the open fields of Europe in columns or lines; very structured • Washington joins as a volunteer • Movement was slow: • Pack animals, road needed to be built, supplies from colonies did not arrive, many soldiers fell ill
This Will NOT work here!
I should’ve listened to Ben Franklin…maybe then I wouldn’t have DIED!
Disaster at Fort Duquesne • July 9, 1755 • Braddock was attacked near • Massacred by the French and Indians • 2,200 British • 977 killed • 1,000 French and Indians • 9 killed • Washington ordered the retreat • After the battle, Washington was sent to guard the coast of Virginia Hey guys!
The Fall of Braddock (1755) Tally-ho!
Braddock’s Burial DEAD
The Seven Years’ War • May 1756: Britain formally declares war on France: • Allied selves with Austria and Prussia • Fighting spread to West Indies, India and Europe
William Pitt • 1757– Britain’s new Prime Minister • Pitt believed that to win control of the overall war, he needed to win the front in North America • Sent Britain’s best generals to North America • Sent more supplies and men to North America • BUT • Forcibly recruited colonists • Seized supplies and equipment from local farmers and tradesmen • Compelled colonists to offer shelter to British troops
The British Turn the Tide • 1758 • Fort Duquesne captured by the British and renamed Fort Pitt • 1758 • British win many key victories (which we will NOT focus on!) • Louisburg (use of navy to control the seas) • Frontenac • Duquesne • Niagara • Crown Point • Ticonderoga
The British Turn the Tide • 1759: British capture Quebec (capital of New France) • British sneak up cliff (Plains of Abraham) outside of Quebec on an unguarded trail • 4,000 men on the side of the Brits • General Wolfe defeats the French General Montcalm (both die…no lols here!) • 1760: British take over Montreal • Fighting ends in North America..Woot!
Dead Dead Montcalm Wolfe